Advertisement

Class, Migration and Education: Conceptual Framework

Chapter
  • 144 Downloads

Abstract

This chapter is concerned with developing a theoretical framework to examine the ways class is processed in the context of migration. It starts with a brief examination of traditional measures of social class based on current occupation and income. It then argues how these orthodoxies fail to capture the transformation of various forms of capital through the process of migration. Bourdieu’s notions of habitus, capital and field are useful for examining migrant mothers’ involvement in children’s education, since they identify how class domination is connected to forms of cultural and social capital extending beyond—but always connected to—the economic realm. Cultural capital, in particular, theorises the labour undertaken by mothers and also allows for devaluing or conversion of capital in the process of migration. This chapter also argues that cultural reproduction is not merely based on class resources but it is through the intersectionality of class and other axes of divisions, reproduction of educational advantages and disadvantages occur.

References

  1. Adkins, L., & Skeggs, B. (2005). Bourdieu and feminism. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  2. Allard, A. C. (2005). Capitalizing on Bourdieu: How useful are concepts of ‘social capital’ and ‘social field’ for researching ‘marginalized’ young women? Theory and Research in Education, 3(1), 63–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anthias, F. (2005). Social stratification and social inequality: Models of intersectionality and identity. In F. Devine, M. Savage, J. Scott, & R. Crompton (Eds.), Rethinking class: Culture, identities and lifestyle (pp. 24–45). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anthias, F. (2007). Ethnic ties: Social capital and the question of mobilizability. The Sociological Review, 55(4), 788–805.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anthias, F. (2008). Thinking through the lens of translocational positionality: An intersectionality frame for understanding identity and belonging. Translocations, Migration and Change, 4(1), 5–20.Google Scholar
  6. Anthias, F. (2012). Transnational mobilities, migration research and intersectionality. Nordic Journal of Migration Research, 2(2), 102–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Anthias, F. (2013). Hierarchies of social location, class and intersectionality: Towards a translocational frame. International Sociology, 28(1), 121–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Archer, L. (2010). ‘We raised it with the head’: The educational practices of minority ethnic, middle-class families. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 31(4), 449–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Archer, L., & Francis, B. (2006). Challenging classes? Exploring the role of social class within the identities and achievement of British Chinese pupils. Sociology, 40(1), 29–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Archer, L., & Francis, B. (2007). Understanding minority ethnic achievement. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  11. Ball, S. J. (2003). Class strategies and the education market: The middle classes and social advantage. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bastia, T. (2014). Intersectionality, migration and development. Progress in Development Studies, 14(3), 237–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bauder, H. (2003). “Brain Abuse” or the devaluation of immigrant labour in canada. Antipode, 35(4), 699–717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Beaverstock, J. (2005). Transnational elites in the city: British highly-skilled inter-company transferees in New York City’s financial district. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 31(2), 245–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bennett, T., Savage, M., Silva, E., Warde, A., Gayo-Cal, M., & Wright, D. (2009). Culture, class, distinction. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Blackledge, A. (2001). The wrong sort of capital? Bangladeshi women and their children’s schooling in Birmingham, U.K. International Journal of Bilingualism, 5(3), 345–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bodovski, K. (2010). Parental practices and educational achievement: Social class, race, and habitus. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 31(2), 139–156.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01425690903539024.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bottero, W. (2004). Class identities and the identity of class. Sociology, 38(5), 979–997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bottero, W. (2005). Stratification: Social division and inequality. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  20. Bottero, W. (2013). Social class structures and social mobility: The background context. In M. Formosa & P. Higgs (Eds.), Social class in later life power, identity and lifestyle (pp. 15–32). Bristol: Policy Press.Google Scholar
  21. Bourdieu, P. (1977a). Outline of a theory of practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bourdieu, P. (1977b). Cultural reproduction and social reproduction. In J. Karabel & A. H. Halsey (Eds.), Power and ideology in education (pp. 487–511). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Bourdieu, P. (1986). The forms of capital. In L. Richardson (Ed.), Handbook of theory and research for the sociology of education (pp. 241–258). New York: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  24. Bourdieu, P. (1987). What makes a social class? On the theoretical and practical existence of groups. The Berkeley Journal of Sociology, 32(1), 1–17.Google Scholar
  25. Bourdieu, P. (1990a). The logic of practice. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Bourdieu, P. (1990b). In other words: Essays towards a reflexive sociology. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  27. Bourdieu, P. (1993). Sociology in question. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  28. Bourdieu, P. (1996). On the family as a realised category. Theory, Culture and Society, 13(3), 19–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Bourdieu, P., Chamboredon, J. C., & Passeron, J. C. (1991). The craft of sociology. New York: Walter de Gruyter.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Bourdieu, P., & Passeron, J. C. (1979). The inheritors: French students and their relation to culture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  31. Bourdieu, P., & Passeron, J. C. (1990). Reproduction in education, society and culture (2nd ed.). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  32. Bourdieu, P., & Wacquant, L. (1992). An invitation to reflexive sociology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  33. Bourdieu, P., & Wacquant, L. (2007). An invitation to reflexive sociology. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  34. Brantlinger, E. (2003). Dividing classes: How the middle class negotiates and rationalizes school advantage. New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Browne, I., & Misra, J. (2003). The intersection of gender and race in the labor market. Annual Review of Sociology, 29, 487–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Brubaker, R. (1985). Rethinking classical theory: The sociological vision of Pierre Bourdieu. Theory and Society, 14(6), 745–775.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Bullen, E., & Kenway, J. (2005). Bourdieu, subcultural capital and risky girlhood. Theory and Research in Education, 3(1), 47–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Calhoun, C., LiPuma, E., & Postone, M. (Eds.). (1995). Bourdieu: Critical perspectives. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  39. Chanderbhan-Forde, S. (2010). Asian Indian mothers’ involvement in their children’s schooling: An analysis of social and cultural capital. Doctoral dissertation. Retrieved from Scholar Commons University of South Florida, Graduate School Theses and Dissertations. http://scholarcommons.usf.edu/etd/1596.
  40. Collins, P. H. (2000). Black feminist thought: Knowledge, consciousness and the politics of empowerment. New York and London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  41. Creese, G., & Wiebe, B. (2012). “Survival employment”: Gender and deskilling among African immigrants in Canada. International Migration, 50, 56–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Crenshaw, K. W. (1989). Demarginalising the intersection of race and sex: A black feminist critique of anti-discrimination doctrine, feminist theory and antiracist politics. The University of Chicago Legal Forum, 140, 138–167.Google Scholar
  43. Crenshaw, K. W. (1991). Mapping the margins: Intersectionality, identity politics, and violence against women of color. Stanford Law Review, 43(6), 1241–1299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Crompton, R. (1998). Class and stratification (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  45. Crompton, R. (2006). Class and family. Sociological Review, 54(4), 658–676.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Crompton, R. (2008). Class and stratification (3rd ed.). Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  47. Crompton, R., & Scott, J. (2000). Introduction: The state of class analysis. In R. Crompton, F. Devine, M. Savage, & J. Scott (Eds.), Renewing class analysis (pp. 1–15). Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  48. Crozier, G., & Davies, J. (2006). Family matters: A discussion of the Bangladeshi and Pakistani extended family and community in supporting the children’s education. The Sociological Review, 54(4), 678–695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Cutler, D., Glaeser, E., & Vigdor, E. (2005). Ghettos and the transmission of ethnic capital. In G. Loury, T. Modood, & S. Teles (Eds.), Ethnicity, social mobility, and public policy: Comparing the US and the UK (pp. 204–221). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  50. Deeb, S., & Bauder, H. (2015). Breaking through the glass ceiling: Intercultural communication and the career experiences of skilled immigrant managers. In L. Ryan, U. Erel, & A. D’Angelo (Eds.), Migrant capital: Networks, identities and strategies (pp. 48–63). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  51. Devine, F. (1998). Class analysis and the stability of class relations. Sociology, 32(1), 23–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Devine, F., & Savage, M. (2000). Conclusion: Renewing class analysis. In R. Crompton, F. Devine, M. Savage, & J. Scott (Eds.), Renewing class analysis (pp. 184–199). Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  53. Devine, F., & Savage, M. (2005). Rethinking class: Culture and identities and lifestyles. London: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Dillabough, J. (2004). Class, culture and the ‘predicaments of masculine domination’: Encountering Pierre Bourdieu. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 25(4), 489–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. DiMaggio, P. J. (1982). Cultural capital and schooling success: The impact of status cultural participation on the grades of U.S high school students. American Sociological Review, 47(2), 189–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Dumais, S. (2002). Cultural capital, gender, and school success: The role of habitus. Sociology of Education, 75(1), 44–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Erel, U. (2009). Migrant women transforming citizenship: Lifestories from Britain and Germany. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  58. Erel, U. (2010). Migrating cultural capital: Bourdieu in migration studies. Sociology, 44(4), 642–660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Erel, U. (2015). Thinking migrant capitals interjectionally: Using a biographical approach. In L. Ryan, U. Erel, & A. D’Angelo (Eds.), Migrant capital: Networks, identities and strategies (pp. 18–32). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  60. Erel, U., & Ryan, L. (2018). Migrant capitals: Proposing a multi-level Spatio-temporal analytical framework. Sociology, 51(1), 1–18.Google Scholar
  61. Gaddis, S. M. (2013). The influence of habitus in the relationship between cultural capital and academic achievement. Social Science Research, 42, 1–13.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssresearch.2012.08.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Gillies, V. (2006). Working class mothers and school life: Exploring the role of emotional capital. Gender and Education, 18(3), 281–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Goldthorpe, J. (1996). Class analysis and the reorientation of class theory. British Journal of Sociology, 47(3), 481–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Grenfell, M., & James, D. (Eds.). (1998). Bourdieu and education: Acts of practical theory. London: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  65. Harker, R. (1990). Bourdieu-education and reproduction. In C. Mahar, R. Harker, & C. Wikes (Eds.), An introduction to the work of Pierre Bourdieu: The practice of theory (pp. 86–108). London: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Heath, A. F., Hasley, A. H., & Ridge, J. M. (1982). Cultural capital and political arithmetic: A response to the review symposium on origins and destinations. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 3(1), 87–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Ho, C. (2006). Migration as feminisation? Chinese women’s experiences of work and family in Australia. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 32(3), 497–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Horvat, E. M. (2003). The interactive effects of race and class in educational research: Theoretical insights from the work of Pierre Bourdieu. Perspectives on Urban Education, 2(1), 1–25.Google Scholar
  69. Horvat, E. M., Weininger, E., & Lareau, A. (2003). From social ties to social capital: Class differences in the relations between schools and parent networks. American Educational Research Journal, 40(2), 319–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Jæger, M. M. (2011). Does cultural capital really affect academic achievement? New evidence from combined sibling and panel data. Sociology of Education, 84, 281–298.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0038040711417010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Jæger, M. M., & Karlson, K. (2018). Cultural capital and educational inequality: A counterfactual analysis. Sociological Science, 5, 775–795.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Jenkins, R. (1982). Pierre Bourdieu and the reproduction of determinism. Sociology, 16(2), 270–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Jenkins, R. (1992). Pierre Bourdieu. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Kelly, P. (2012). Migration, transnationalism, and the spaces of class identity. Philippine Studies: Historical and Ethnographic Viewpoints, 60(2), 153–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lamont, M., & Lareau, A. (1988). Cultural capital: Allusions, gaps and glissandos in recent theoretical development. Sociological Theory, 6(2), 153–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Lareau, A. (1987). Social class in family–school relationship: The importance of cultural capital. Sociology of Education, 60(2), 73–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Lareau, A. (1989). Home advantage: Social class and parental intervention in elementary education. New York: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  78. Lareau, A. (2003). Unequal childhoods: Class, race and family life. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  79. Lareau, A., & Horvat, E. M. (1999). Moments of social inclusion and exclusion race, class, and cultural capital in family–school relationships. Sociology of Education, 72(1), 37–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Lareau, A., & Weininger, E. B. (2003). Cultural capital in education research: A critical assessment. Theory and Society, 32(5/6), 567–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Lee, J., & Bowen, N. K. (2006). Parent involvement, cultural capital, and the achievement gap among elementary school children. American Educational Research Journal, 43(2), 193–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Leung, M. W. H. (2013). ‘Read ten thousand books, walk ten thousand miles’: Geographical mobility and capital accumulation among Chinese scholars. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 38(2), 311–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Leung, M. W. H. (2017). Social mobility via academic mobility: Reconfigurations in class and gender identities among Asian scholars in the global north. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 43(16), 2704–2719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Li, G. (2008). Parenting practices and schooling: The way class works for new immigrant groups. In L. Weis (Ed.), The way class works. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  85. Lin, N. (2001). Social capital: A theory of social structure and action. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Liversage, A. (2009). Finding a path: Investigating the labour market trajectories of high-skilled immigrants in Denmark. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 35(2), 203–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Longhurst, B., & Savage, M. (1996). Social class, consumption and the influence of Bourdieu: Some critical issues. The Sociological Review, 44, 274–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Lopez Rodriguez, M. (2010). Migration and a quest for ‘normalcy’: Polish migrant mothers and the capitalization of meritocratic opportunities in the UK. Social Identities: Journal for the Study of Race, Nation and Culture, 16(3), 339–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Lury, C. (1996). Consumer culture. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  90. Mahar, C. (1990). Pierre Bourdieu: The intellectual project. In R. Harker, C. Mahar, & C. Wilkes (Eds.), An introduction to the work of Pierre Bourdieu: The practice of theory. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  91. Man, G. (2004). Gender, work and migration: Deskilling Chinese immigrant women in Canada. Women’s Studies International Forum, 27, 135–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Marshall, G. (1997). Repositioning class. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  93. McCall, L. (1992). Does gender fit? Bourdieu, feminism, and conceptions of social order. Theory and Society, 21(6), 837–867.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. McDowell, L. (2006). Reconfigurations of gender and class relations: Class differences, class condescension and the changing place of class relations. Antipode, 38(4), 825–850.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. McDowell, L. (2008). Thinking through work: Complex inequalities, constructions of difference and trans-national migrants. Progress in Human Geography, 32(4), 491–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. McLeod, J. (2005). Feminist re-reading Bourdieu: Old debates and new questions about gender habitus and gender change. Theory and Research in Education, 3(1), 11–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Modood, T. (2004). Capitals, ethnic identity and educational qualifications. Cultural Trends, 13(2), 87–105.  https://doi.org/10.1080/0954896042000267170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Moi, T. (1991). Appropriating Bourdieu: Feminist theory and Pierre Bourdieu’s sociology of culture. New Literary History, 22(4), 1017–1049.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Moore, R. (2004). Cultural capital: Objective probability and the cultural arbitrary. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 25(4), 445–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Morris, L., & Scott, J. (1996). The attenuation of class. British Journal of Sociology, 47(1), 45–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Nash, R. (1999). Bourdieu, ‘habitus’, and educational research: Is it all worth the candle? British Journal of Sociology of Education, 20(2), 175–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Nowicka, M. (2014). Migrating skills, skilled migrants and migration skills: The influence of contexts on the validation of migrants’ skills. Migration Letters, 11(2), 171–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Oliver, C., & O’Reilly, K. (2010). A Bourdieusian analysis of class and migration: Habitus and the individualising process. Sociology, 44(1), 49–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. O’Brien, M. (2008). Gendered capital: Emotional capital and mothers’ care work in education. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 29(2), 137–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Parreñas, R. (2001). Servants of globalization. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  106. Reay, D. (1998a). Class work: Mothers’ involvement in their children’s primary schooling. London: UCL Press.Google Scholar
  107. Reay, D. (1998b). Rethinking social class: Qualitative perspectives on class and gender. Sociology, 32(2), 259–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Reay, D. (1998c). Cultural reproduction: Mothers’ involvement in their children’s primary schooling. In M. Grenfell & D. James (Eds.), Bourdieu and education: Acts of practical theory (pp. 55–70). Bristol, PA: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  109. Reay, D. (1998d). Engendered social reproduction: Mothers in the educational marketplace. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 19(2), 195–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Reay, D. (1999). Linguistic capital and home-school relationship: Mothers’ interactions with their children’s primary teachers. Acta Sociologica, 42(2), 159–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Reay, D. (2004a). Education and cultural capital: The implications of changing trends in education policies. Cultural Trends, 13(2), 73–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Reay, D. (2004b). ‘It’s all becoming a habitus’: Beyond the habitual use of habitus in educational research. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 25(4), 431–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Reay, D. (2004c). Gendering Bourdieu’s concepts of capitals: Emotional capital, women and social class. The Sociological Review, 52(2), 57–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Riaño, Y., & Baghdadi, N. (2007). Understanding the labour market participation of skilled immigrant women in Switzerland: The interplay of class, ethnicity, and gender. International Migration and Integration, 8, 163–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Roksa, J., & Potter, D. (2011). Parenting and academic achievement: Intergenerational transmission of educational advantage. Sociology of Education, 84, 299–321.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0038040711417013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Ryan, L., Sales, R., Tilki, M., & Siara, B. (2008). Social networks, social support and social capital: The experiences of recent Polish migrants in London. Sociology, 42(4), 672–690.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Salaff, J., & Greve, A. (2003). Gendered structural barriers to job attainment for skilled Chinese emigrants in Canada. International Journal of Population Geography, 9(6), 443–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Savage, M. (2000). Class analysis and social transformation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  119. Savage, M., Devine, F., Cunningham, M., Taylor, M., Li, Y., Hjellbrekke, J., … Miles, A. (2013). A new model of social class? Findings from the BBC’s Great British class survey experiment. Sociology, 47(2), 219–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Savage, M., Warde, A., & Devine, F. (2005). Capital, assets and resources: Some critical issues. British Journal of Sociology, 56(1), 31–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Skeggs, B. (1997). Formations of class and gender. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  122. Van Hear, N. (2014). Reconsidering migration and class. International Migration Review, 48(1), 100–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Wacquant, L. (1989). Towards a reflexive sociology: A workshop with Pierre Bourdieu. Sociological Theory, Culture and Society, 7(1), 26–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Wacquant, L. (1991). Making class: The middle class(es) in social theory and social structure. In S. G. McNall, R. F. Levine, & R. Fantasia (Eds.), Bringing class back in: Contemporary and historical perspectives (pp. 39–64). Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  125. Wallace, D. (2018). Cultural capital as whiteness? Examining logics of ethno-racial representation and resistance. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 39(4), 466–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Weininger, E. B., Lareau, A., & Conley, D. (2015). What money doesn’t buy: Class resources and children’s participation in organized extracurricular activities. Social Forces, 94, 479–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Whitty, G. (2001). Education, social class and social exclusion. Journal of Education Policy, 16(4), 287–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Yuval-Davis, N. (2006). Belonging and the politics of belonging. Patterns of Prejudice, 40(3), 196–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Yuval-Davis, N. (2011). The politics of belonging: Intersectional contestations. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  130. Zembylas, M. (2007). Emotional capital and education: Theoretical insights from Bourdieu. British Journal of Educational Studies, 55(4), 443–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Zhou, M. (2005). Ethnicity as social capital: Community-based institutions and embedded networks of social relations. In G. Loury, T. Madood, & S. Teles (Eds.), Ethnicity, social mobility, and public policy: Comparing the US and the UK (pp. 131–159). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  132. Zhou, M., & Bankston, C. (1998). Growing up American: How Vietnamese immigrants adapt to life in the United States. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Deakin UniversityMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations