Advertisement

A Reading Profile of Singapore Primary 1 Students and Implications for Reading Pedagogy

  • Chitra ShegarEmail author
  • Christopher S. Ward
Chapter
Part of the Education Innovation Series book series (EDIN)

Abstract

Reading plays an important role in providing a foundation for language proficiency and academic achievement. Thus it is imperative that, in schools, children are properly inducted into a reading process that develops them into proficient and critical readers. To attain this objective, however, schools require a comprehensive and effective reading instruction curriculum. Such a curriculum can be more effectively formulated if there are data portraying the reading and comprehension abilities of the students at entry level. In light of this need, this paper describes the reading profile of a group of students in Singapore at entry level of a primary school, Primary 1, detailing their decoding, retelling and comprehension abilities. In examining and discussing the scores, we examine the kind of pedagogy which is necessary for enhancing the reading abilities of these students. It is envisaged that the findings and pedagogical implications could have applicability in other contexts where school students are expected to communicate and learn through the medium of English even though they might have different home languages.

Keywords

Phonological Awareness Reading Skill Reading Ability Vocabulary Knowledge Comprehension Ability 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This chapter refers to data from the research project “A Reading Intervention Model to Improve Reading Instruction in Primary Schools” (CRP 18/05 CS) funded by the Centre for Research in Pedagogy and Practice, National Institute of Education (NIE), Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. The views expressed in this paper are the authors’ and do not necessarily represent the views of NIE. The authors wish to express their gratitude to the participating schools, teachers and students.

References

  1. Baydar, N., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Furstenberg, F. F. (1993). Early warning signs of functional illiteracy: Predictors in childhood and adolescence. Child Development, 64(3), 815–829. doi: 10.2307/1131220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beck, I. L., & McKeown, M. G. (2001). Text talk: Capturing the benefits of read aloud experiences for young children. The Reading Teacher, 55(1), 10–20.Google Scholar
  3. Britton, B. K., & Graesser, A. C. (Eds.). (1996). Models of understanding text. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  4. Chall, J. (1983). Stages of reading development. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company.Google Scholar
  5. Clay, M. M. (1993a). An observation survey of early literacy achievement. Auckland: Heinemann Education.Google Scholar
  6. Clay, M. M. (1993b). Reading recovery: A guide for teachers in training. Auckland: Heinemann Education.Google Scholar
  7. Cunningham, A. E., & Stanovich, K. E. (1997). Early reading acquisition and its relation to reading experience and ability 10 years later. Developmental Psychology, 33(6), 934–945. doi: 10.1037//0012-1649.33.6.934.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Curdt-Christiansen, X.-L., & Silver, R. E. (2012). Educational reforms, cultural clashes and classroom practices. Cambridge Journal of Education, 42(2), 141–161. doi: 10.1080/0305764X.2012.676631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dickinson, D. K., & Porche, M. V. (2011). Relationship between language experiences in preschool classrooms and children’s kindergarten and fourth-grade language and reading abilities. Child Development, 82(3), 870–886.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Duncan, G. J., Dowsett, C. J., Claessens, A., Magnuson, K., Huston, A. C., Klebanov, P., Pagani, L. S., Feinstein, L., Engel, M., Brooks-Gunn, J., Sexton, H., Duckworth, K., & Japel, C. (2007). School readiness and later achievement. Developmental Psychology, 43(6), 1428–1446. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.43.6.1428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Erford, B. T. (2004). The reading essential skill screener – Preschool version (RESS-P): Studies of reliability. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 29(3), 19–34. doi: 10.1177/073724770402900302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fountas, I., & Pinell, G. S. (1996). Guided reading: Good first teaching for all children. Portsmouth: Heinemann Educational.Google Scholar
  13. Fry, E. (1977). Fry’s readability graph: Clarification, validity, and extension to level 17. Journal of Reading, 21(3), 242–252.Google Scholar
  14. Gaskins, I. W. (1998). There’s more to teaching at-risk and delayed readers than good reading instruction. The Reading Teacher, 51(7), 534–547.Google Scholar
  15. Hamilton, S. S., & Glascoe, F. P. (2006). Evaluation of children with reading difficulties. American Family Physician, 74(12), 2079–2084.Google Scholar
  16. Hargrave, A. C., & Senechal, M. (2000). A book reading intervention with preschool children who have limited vocabularies: The benefits of regular reading and dialogic reading. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 15(1), 75–90. doi: 10.1016/S0885-2006(99)00038-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Harris, J., Golinkoff, R. M., & Hirsh-Pasek, K. (2011). Lessons from the crib for the classroom: How children really learn vocabulary. In S. B. Neuman & D. K. Dickinson (Eds.), Handbook of early literacy research (Vol. 3, pp. 49–65). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  18. Irwin, J. W. (1991). Teaching reading comprehension processes (2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  19. Kirsch, I. S. (2002). Reading for change: Performance and engagement across countries. Results from PISA 2000. Paris: OECD Publishing.Google Scholar
  20. Kuhn, M. (2010). Helping students become accurate, expressive readers: Fluency instruction for small groups. In D. S. Strickland (Ed.), Essential readings on early literacy (pp. 39–46). Newark: International Reading Association. doi: 10.1598/RT.58.4.3.Google Scholar
  21. Linan-Thompson, S., & Vaughn, S. (2007). Research-based methods of reading instruction for English-language learners, Grades K-4. Alexandria: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.Google Scholar
  22. McGee, L. M., & Schickedanz, J. A. (2010). Repeated interactive read-alouds in preschool and kindergartens. In D. S. Strickland (Ed.), Essential readings on early literacy (pp. 10–20). Newark: International Reading Association. doi: 10.1598/RT.60.8.4.Google Scholar
  23. Ministry of Education. (2007). Singapore’s performance in the progress in international reading literacy study (PIRLS) 2006. Retrieved from http://www.moe.gov.sg/media/press/2007/pr20071129.htm
  24. Ministry of Education. (2008). English language syllabus 2010 primary & secondary (Express/Normal [Academic]). Retrieved from http://www.moe.gov.sg/education/syllabuses/english-language-and-literature/files/english-primary-secondary-express-normal-academic.pdf
  25. Moats, L. C. (1999). Teaching reading is rocket science: What expert teachers of reading should know and be able to do. Washington, DC: American Federation of Teachers.Google Scholar
  26. Neuman, S. B., & Cunningham, L. (2009). The impact of professional development and coaching on early language and literacy instructional practices. American Educational Research Journal, 46(2), 532–566. doi: 10.3102/0002831208328088.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. O’Connor, R. E., & Vadasy, P. F. (Eds.). (2011). Handbook of reading interventions. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  28. O’Connor, R. E., Harty, K. R., & Fulmer, D. (2005). Tiers of intervention in kindergarten through third grade. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 38(6), 532–538. doi: 10.1177/00222194050380060901.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Paris, S. G. (2005). Reinterpreting the development of reading skills. Reading Research Quarterly, 40(2), 184–202. doi: 10.1598/RRQ.40.2.3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Phillips, L. M., Norris, S. P., Osmond, W. C., & Maynard, A. M. (2002). Relative reading achievement: A longitudinal study of 187 children from first through sixth grades. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94(1), 3–13. doi: 10.1037//0022-0663.94.1.3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rathvon, N. (2004). Early reading assessment: A practitioner’s handbook. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  32. Rumelhart, D. E. (1977). Toward an interactive model of reading. In S. Dornic (Ed.), Attention and performance VI (pp. 573–603). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. doi: 10.1598/0710.29.Google Scholar
  33. Scanlon, M. D., Anderson, K. L., & Sweeney, M. (2010). Early intervention for reading difficulties: The interactive strategies approach. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  34. Scarborough, H. (2001). Connecting early language and literacy to later reading (dis)abilities: Evidence theory, and practice. In S. B. Neuman & D. K. Dickinson (Eds.), Handbook of early literacy research (Vol. 1). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  35. Smith, A., & Nelley, E. (2002). PM Benchmark Kit 2. Southbank: Nelson Thomson Learning.Google Scholar
  36. Snow, C. E., & Van Hemel, S. B. (2008). Early childhood assessment: Why, what, and how? Washington, DC: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  37. Spira, E. G., Bracken, S. S., & Fischel, J. E. (2005). Predicting improvement after first-grade reading difficulties: The effects of oral language, emergent literacy, and behavior skills. Developmental Psychology, 41(1), 225–234. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.41.1.225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Sripathy, M. (2007). Cultural scripts and literacy pedagogy. In V. Vaish, S. Gopinathan, & Y. Liu (Eds.), Language, capital, culture: Critical studies of language and education in Singapore (pp. 73–102). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.Google Scholar
  39. Strickland, D. S. (2010). Essential readings on early literacy. Newark: International Reading Association.Google Scholar
  40. Taylor, B. M., Short, R. A., Frye, B. J., & Shearer, B. A. (1992). Classroom teachers prevent reading failure among low-achieving first-grade students. The Reading Teacher, 45, 592–597.Google Scholar
  41. Tikunoff, W. J. (1983). Compatibility of the SBIF features with other research instruction of LEP students. San Francisco: Far West Laboratory.Google Scholar
  42. Vaish, V., & Shegar, C. (2009). Asian pedagogy: Scaffolding in a Singaporean English classroom. In R. E. Silver, C. C. M. Goh, & L. Alsagoff (Eds.), Language learning in new English contexts: Studies of acquisition and development (pp. 75–90). London: Continuum.Google Scholar
  43. Van den Broek, P. (2001). The role of television viewing in the development of reading comprehension. Washington, DC: US Department of Education.Google Scholar
  44. Wanzek, J., & Vaughn, S. (2008). Response to varying amounts of time in reading intervention for students with low response to intervention. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 42(2), 126–142. doi: 10.1177/0022219407313426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Whitehurst, G. J., Arnold, D. H., Epstein, J. N., Angell, A. L., Smith, M., & Fischel, J. E. (1994). A picture book reading intervention in daycare and home for children from low-income families. Developmental Psychology, 30(5), 679–689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Wong, R. Y. L. (2007). Reading is usually a passage followed by a set of questions for the kids: Primary 3 reading lessons in Singapore. In V. Vaish, S. Gopinathan, & Y.-B. Liu (Eds.), Language, capital, culture: Critical studies of language and education in Singapore (pp. 103–115). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.Google Scholar
  47. Zaslow, M., Tout, K., Halle, T., & Starr, R. (2011). Professional development for early childhood educators: Reviewing and revising conceptualizations. In S. B. Neuman & D. K. Dickinson (Eds.), Handbook of early literacy research (Vol. 3, pp. 425–434). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Independent ScholarSingaporeSingapore
  2. 2.English Language Institute of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore

Personalised recommendations