Study of Genetic Polymorphism at 8 STR Loci in the Jat Sikh Population of Madhya Pradesh

  • Pankaj Shrivastava
  • Devika Dogra
  • Ruchira Chaudhary
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology book series (BRIEFSAPPLSCIENCES)


Allele frequencies for 8 autosomal Short Tandem Repeat loci namely D18S51, D21S11, FGA, CSF1PO, D16S539, D7S820, D13S317, D2S1338 and Amelogenin, were studied in 50 unrelated individuals from the Jat Sikh population of M.P. PCR amplification was performed with the AmpFlSTR® MinifilerTM PCR Amplification system and the amplified products were separated by ABI 3100 DNA genetic analyzer. No significant departure from Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) expectations were observed for 8 STR loci analyzed (P-value > 0.05). None of the P-values could be considered significant. No linkage disequilibrium was found between the loci as all loci are located on the different chromosome, and thus they are statistically independent. The F IS value for Jat Sikh population has been calculated as 0.005. This low F IS value indicates that the population is in random mating with high level of heterozygosity. The power of discrimination of the microsatellite markers used was found to be high for the studied populations. The data thereof is of significance for forensic result interpretation and is an addition to the existing autosomal STR database on the Indian population.


AmpFLSTR® MinifilerTM PCR amplification kit Autosomal STR Jat sikh 


  1. 1.
    Nakamura Leppert M, O’Connell P, Wolff R, Holm T, Culver M, Martin C, Fujimoto E, Hoff M, Kumlin E (1987) Variable number of tandem repeats markers for human gene mapping. Science 235:1616–1622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Deka RM, Shriver LMY, Ferrel RE, Chakraborty R (1995) Intra and inter population diversity at short tandem repeat loci in diverse population of the world. Electrophoresis 16:1659–1664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Shazia AP, Nithya Seshadri M (2009) Genetic variation of polymorphic NOS STR locus in ten Indian population groups. Tehetnka 45:1–4Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ferdous AME, Ali S, Alam M, Hasan M, Hossain T, Akhteruzzaman S (2010) Allele frequencies of 10 autosomal STR loci from Chakma and Tripura tribal population in Bangladesh. Mol Bio Int 8:12–23Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    He J, Guo F (2013) Genetic variation of fifteen autosomal STR loci in a Manchu population from Jilinprovince, northeast China. Forensic Sci Int Genet 7:45–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Liu J, Guo L, Qi R, Li SY, Yin JY, Zhang W, Sun Z, TianX Gao B (2013) Allele frequencies of 19 autosomal STR loci in Manchu population of China with phylogenetic structure among worldwide populations. Gene 529:282–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Vieira1 TC, Silva DM, Gigonzac MAD, Ferreira VL, Gonçalves MW, da Cruz AD (2013) Allelic frequencies and statistical data obtained from 15 STR loci in a population of the Goiás State. Genet Mol Res 12:23–27Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Soltyszewski I, Pepinski W, Wolanska-Nowak P, Maciejewska A, Paszkowska R (2014) Polish population data on 15 autosomal STRs of AmpFISTR NGM PCR kit. Forensic Sci Int Genet 9:142–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Basu A, Mukherjee N, Roy S, Sengupta S, Banerjee S, Chakraborty M, Dey B, Roy M, Roy B, Bhatacharyya NP, Roychaudhary S, Majumder PP (2003) Ethnic India: a genomic view, with special reference to peopling and structure. Genome Res 13:2277–2290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Indian Genome Variation Consortium (2008) Genetic landscape of the people of India: a canvas for disease gene exploration. J Genet 87:1–20Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Thapar R (1996) A history of India 1966, vol 1. Penguin, MiddlesexGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Basham AL (1967) The wonder that was India: a survey of history and culture of the Indian subcontinent before the coming of the muslims, 3rd rev edn. Sidgwick and Jackson, LondonGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bamshad MJ, Kivisild T, Watkin WS (2001) Genetic evidence on the origins of Indian caste populations. Genome Res 11:994–1004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Singh RS, The Indian caste system, human diversity and genetic determinism. In: Thinking about evolution: Historical Philosphical and political perspectives. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p 161Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Corruccini RS, Gill PS (1987) Genetic-geographic dispersion among the North Indian population and affinities of the Jats. Int J Anthropol 2(4):301–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gadgil M, Joshi NV, Manoharan S et al (1998) Peopling of India. In: Balasubramanian D, Rao NA (eds) The Indian human heritage. University Press, Hyderabad, pp 100–129Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hand Bittles A, Neel JV (1994) The costs of human inbreeding and their implications for variation at the DNA level. Nature Genet 8:117–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Walter H (1986) Genetic differentiation processes among the population in India. Int J Anthropolol 1(4):297–306Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tautz D, Renz M (1984) Simple sequences are ubiquitous repetitive component of eukaryotic genomes. Nucleic Acids Res 12:4127–4136Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Weber JL, May P E (1989) Abundant class of human DNA polymorphisms which can be typed using the polymerase chain reaction. Am J Human Genet 44:388–396Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Khanna SK (2004) Cultures. In: Ember CR, Ember M (eds.) Encyclopedia of medical anthropology, vol 2. Springer, New York, pp 777–782Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ibbetson D (1916) Punjab castes. Neeraj publications, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Fuchs S (1974) The aboriginal tribes of India. Machmillan India, DelhiGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Singh IP (1977) Singh H (ed) Caste in a sikh village. In: Caste among non hindus in India. National Publishing House, DelhiGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Singh P, Singh M, Singh, Bhatnagar DP et al (2008) Apolipoprotien C3 (SstI) Genevariability in North west India: a Global perspective. Int J Hum Genet 8(1–2):51–60Google Scholar
  26. 26.
  27. 27.
    Biosystems Applied (2012) AmpFlSTR® MiniFiler™ PCR amplification kit user’s manual. Applied Biosystems, Foster CityGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Shrivastava P, Mishra N, Sharma NC, Trivedi VB, Negi DS, Verma MK (2013) Autosomal STR genotyping analysis of juvenile delinquents of Madhya Pradesh. Adv Biotech 23:19–6750Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    PowerStatsV12.xls software, Free program distributed by promega corporation-USA over the Internet from©, Promega Corporation
  30. 30.
    Dogra D, Shrivastava P, Chaudhary R, Gupta U, Jain T (2015) Population Genetics for Autosomal STR Loci in Sikh Population of Central India, Hereditary Genet 4:1Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Excoffier L, Lischer HEL (2010) Arlequin suit ver.3.5 A new series of program to perform population genetics analysis under Linux and windows. Mol Eco Res 10:47–50.
  32. 32.
    Takezaki N, Nei M, Tamura K (2010) POPTREE 2: software for constructing population trees from allele frequency data and computing other population statistics with window interface. Mol Bio Evol 27(4):747–52Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Saitou N, Nei M (1987) The neighbour joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Bio Evol 4:406–425Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Sarkar N, Kashyap VK (2002) Genetic diversity at two pentanucleotide STR loci by multiplex PCR in four predominant population groups of Central India. J Forensic Sci 128:196–201Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Chu JY, Huang W, Kuang SQ, Wang JM, Xu JJ, Chu ZT, Yang ZQ, Lin KQ, Li P, Wu M, Geng ZC, Tan CC, Du RF, Jin L (1998) Genetic relationship of populations in China. Evolution 95:11763–11768Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Reddy BM, Sun G, Dutta R, Deka R (2001) STR data for AmplFlSTR profiler plus loci among Golla population of Southern Andhra Pradesh, India. J Forensic Sci 46:734–735CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Reddy BM, Naidu VM, Madhavi VK, Thangaraj K, Langstieh BT, Venkataramana P, Kumar V, Singh L (2005). STR data for the Amp F/STR Profiler plus loci among 27 populations of different social hierarchy from southern part of Andhra Pradesh, India. Forensic Sci Int 149:81–97Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Krithika S, Maji S, Vasulu TS (2008) A microsatellite guided insight into the genetic status of Adi, an isolated shunting-gathering tribe of northeast India. PLoS One 3:e2549Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Giroti R, Talwar I (2013) Diversity and differentiation in Khatris, Banias and Jat Sikhs of Punjab: a study with forensic microsatellites. Ind J Phys Anthrop Hum Genet 32(2):309–328Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Bamshad MJS, Wooding WS, Watkins CT, Ostler, Batzer MA, Jorde LB (2003) Human population genetic structure and inference of group membership. Am J Hum Genet 72:578–589Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pankaj Shrivastava
    • 1
  • Devika Dogra
    • 2
  • Ruchira Chaudhary
    • 3
  1. 1.DNA Fingerprinting UnitState Forensic Science LaboratorySagarIndia
  2. 2.Department of BiotechnologyBarkatullah UniversityBhopalIndia
  3. 3.Biotechnology Division, Department of ZoologyGovernment Motilal Vigyan MahavidyalayaBhopalIndia

Personalised recommendations