Grid Revolution with Distributed Generation and Storage

  • Kaveh Rajab Khalilpour
  • Anthony Vassallo
Part of the Green Energy and Technology book series (GREEN)


Renewable energy resources, such as PV, are theoretically the most sustainable alternative route to address energy security and climate change problems concurrently. Nevertheless, they generally suffer from two key limitations, intermittency and limited availability. These constraints increase investment costs and meanwhile result in low-capacity utilization factors and therefore high here-and-now investment costs (though negligible there-and-after operation costs). Secondly, unavailability of the energy source (solar radiation, wind, biomass, etc.) at certain times (day, week, season, etc.) requires allocation of either an auxiliary power source (such as other types of generation or connection to the grid) or energy storage. Without this consideration, energy security and autonomy with renewables are impossible, at both macro- and microlevel. This chapter reviews the historical development of distributed generation (DG) and storage (DGS) systems in general and PV-batteries in particular. Then, an overview of nanogrids and their impacts on macrogrids is provided.


Energy Storage Demand Side Management Electrical Energy Storage Distribute Energy Resource Electricity Storage 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Channell J et al (2013) Energy Darwinism: the evolution of the energy industry. Citi GPS: global perspectives & solutions. CitigroupGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rfassbind (2009) Global energy potential. SVGGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ackermann T, Andersson G, Söder L (2001) Distributed generation: a definition1. Electr Pow Syst Res 57(3):195–204Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Smil V (2005) Energy at the crossroads: global perspectives and uncertainties. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    US-Energy-Information-Administration (2013) International energy outlook 2013-world total energy consumption by region and fuel, reference case. International Energy Outlook Energy Information Administration, Washington, DC 20585Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Petrova-Koch V, Hezel R, Goetzberger A (2009) High-efficient low-cost photovoltaics: recent developments. Springer series in optical sciences, vol 140. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Smith W (1873) Effect of Light on Selenium During the Passage of An Electric Current. Nature 7(173)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lenard P (1902) The light electrical effect. Ann Phys 8(5):149–198Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Einstein A (1905) Generation and conversion of light with regard to a heuristic point of view. Ann Phys 17(6):132–148Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Riordan M, Hoddeson L (1997) The origins of the pn junction. Spectr IEEE 34(6):46–51Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Williams RH et al (1993) A benefit/cost analysis of accelerated development of photovoltaic technology. Center for Energy and Environmental StudiesGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Carr G (2012) Alternative energy will no longer be alternative. The EconomistGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    SBC-Energy-Institute (2013) Solar photovoltaic. Leading the enrgy transition factbook. Schlumberger Business Consulting (SBC) Energy InstituteGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sherwani AF, Usmani JA, Varun (2010) Life cycle assessment of solar PV based electricity generation systems: a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 14(1):540–544Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    IEA (2011) Solar energy perspectives. International Energy Agency, FranceGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    EPIA (2013) Global market outlook for photovoltaics 2013–2017. European Photovoltaic Industry AssociationGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Masson G et al (2014) Global market outlook for photovoltaics 2014–2018. Global Market Outlook. European Photovoltaic Industry Association, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Candelise C, Winskel M, Gross RJK (2013) The dynamics of solar PV costs and prices as a challenge for technology forecasting. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 26:96–107Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    NREL (2014) Efficiency chart. NRELGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ferioli F, Schoots K, van der Zwaan BCC (2009) Use and limitations of learning curves for energy technology policy: A component-learning hypothesis. Energ Policy 37(7):2525–2535Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    IEA-ETSAP, IRENA (2013) Solar photovoltaics-technology brief. International Renewable Energy Agency and International Energy AgencyGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    EPIA (2011) Solar Generation 6-Solar photovoltaic electricity empowering the world. The European Photovoltaic Industry AssociationGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Marigo N, Candelise C (2013) What is behind the recent dramatic reductions in photovoltaic prices? The role of china. J Ind Bus Econ 3:4–41Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rfassbind (2014) From a solar cell to a PV system. SVGGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Quezada VHM et al (2006) Assessment of energy distribution losses for increasing penetration of distributed generation. IEEE Trans Power Syst 21(2):533–540Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cossent R et al (2010) Mitigating the impact of distributed generation on distribution network costs through advanced response options. In: 2010 7th international conference on the european energy market (EEM), pp 1–6, 23–25 June 2010Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Durant W, Durant A (1996) The story of civilization. World Library, Irvine, CA, p 1Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zalba B et al (2003) Review on thermal energy storage with phase change: materials, heat transfer analysis and applications. Appl Thermal Eng 23(3):251–283Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sharma A et al (2009) Review on thermal energy storage with phase change materials and applications. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 13(2):318–345Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Luo X, Wang J, Dooner M, Clarke J (2015) Overview of current development in electrical energy storage technologies and the application potential in power system operation. Appl Energ 137:511–536Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Chen HS et al (2009) Progress in electrical energy storage system: a critical review. Prog Nat Sci 19(3):291–312Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sulzberger C (2013) Pearl street in miniature: models of the electric generating station [history]. Power Energy Magazine, IEEE 11(2):76–85Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Vassallo AM (2015) Chapter 17—applications of batteries for grid-scale energy storage. In: Lim CMS-KM (ed) Advances in batteries for medium and large-scale energy storage. Woodhead Publishing, pp 587–607Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Thomson C (2015) The fascinating evolution of the electric carGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Baker JN, Collinson A (1999) Electrical energy storage at the turn of the Millennium. Power Eng J 13(3):107–112Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Decourt B, Debarre R (2013) Electricity storage. Leading the enrgy transition factbook. Schlumberger Business Consulting (SBC) Energy Institute, GravenhageGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Koohi-Kamali S et al (2013) Emergence of energy storage technologies as the solution for reliable operation of smart power systems: a review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 25:135–165Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Akhil AA et al (2013) DOE/EPRI 2013 electricity storage handbook in collaboration with NRECA. US Department of Energy and EPRI, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Battke B et al A review and probabilistic model of lifecycle costs of stationary batteries in multiple applications. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 25:240–250Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    DNV-KEMA (2013) Energy storage cost-effectiveness methodology and preliminary results.
  41. 41.
    Barnhart CJ, Benson SM (2013) On the importance of reducing the energetic and material demands of electrical energy storage. Energy Environ Sci 6(4):1083–1092Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Nykvist B, Nilsson M (2015) Rapidly falling costs of battery packs for electric vehicles. Nature Clim Change 5 (4):329–332Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Channell J et al (2013) Battery storage—the next solar boom? Citi ResGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    GTM-Research (2014) North American Microgrids 2014: the evolution of localized energy optimization. GTM ResearchGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Klemun M (2014) Grid perfection, not defection: a new microgrid landscape in the making. greentechgridGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    GTM, ESA (2015) U.S. energy storage monitor: 2014 year in review. U.S. energy storage monitor. GTM research and energy storage associationGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Tesla (2015) Powerwall, Tesla home batteryGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Schonberger J, Duke R, Round SD (2006) DC-bus signaling: a distributed control strategy for a hybrid renewable nanogrid. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 53(5):1453–1460Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Yamegueu D et al (2011) Experimental study of electricity generation by solar PV/diesel hybrid systems without battery storage for off-grid areas. Renew Energ 36(6):1780–1787Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Nema P, Nema RK, Rangnekar S (2009) A current and future state of art development of hybrid energy system using wind and PV-solar: a review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 13(8):2096–2103Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    McGowan JG, Manwell JF (1999) Hybrid wind/PV/diesel system experiences. Renew Energ 16(1–4):928–933Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Merei G, Berger C, Sauer DU (2013) Optimization of an off-grid hybrid PV–wind–diesel system with different battery technologies using genetic algorithm. Sol Energy 97:460–473Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Dufo-López R, Bernal-Agustín JL, Contreras J (2007) Optimization of control strategies for stand-alone renewable energy systems with hydrogen storage. Renew Energ 32(7):1102–1126Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Neves D, Silva CA, Connors S (2014) Design and implementation of hybrid renewable energy systems on micro-communities: a review on case studies. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 31:935–946Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Gordon JM (1987) Optimal sizing of stand-alone photovoltaic solar power-systems. Sol Cells 20(4):295–313Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Peippo K, Lund PD (1994) Optimal sizing of grid-connected PV-systems for different climates and array orientations—a simulation study. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells 35(1–4):445–451Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Siegel A, Schott T (1988) Optimization of photovoltaic hydrogen production. Int J Hydrogen Energ 13(11):659–675Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Nitsch J, Winter CJ (1987) Solar hydrogen energy in the F.R. of Germany: 12 theses. Int J Hydrogen Energ 12(10):663–667Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Bucciarelli LL Jr (1984) Estimating loss-of-power probabilities of stand-alone photovoltaic solar energy systems. Sol Energy 32(2):205–209Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Lu B, Shahidehpour M (2005) Short-term scheduling of battery in a grid-connected PV/battery system. Power Syst IEEE Trans on 20(2):1053–1061Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Bayoumy M et al (1994) New techniques for battery charger and SOC estimation in photovoltaic hybrid power systems. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells 35:509–514Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Loois G, van der Weiden TCJ, Hoekstra KJ (1994) Technical set-up and use of PV diesel systems for houseboats and barges. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells 35:487–496Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Kauranen PS, Lund PD, Vanhanen JP (1994) Development of a self-sufficient solar-hydrogen energy system. Int J Hydrogen Energ 19(1):99–106Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Ghosh PC, Emonts B, Stolten D (2003) Comparison of hydrogen storage with diesel-generator system in a PV–WEC hybrid system. Sol Energy 75(3):187–198Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    McGowan JG, Manwell JF, Connors SR (1988) Wind/diesel energy systems: review of design options and recent developments. Sol Energy 41(6):561–575Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Jaramillo OA, Rodríguez-Hernández O, Fuentes-Toledo A (2010) 9—Hybrid wind–hydropower energy systems. In: Kaldellis JK (ed) Stand-alone and hybrid wind energy systems. Woodhead Publishing, pp 282–322Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Sinha A (1993) Modelling the economics of combined wind/hydro/diesel power systems. Energ Convers Manage 34(7):577–585Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Nayar CV et al (1993) Novel wind/diesel/battery hybrid energy system. Sol Energy 51(1):65–78Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Mertig D, Krausen E (1990) Sewage plant powered by combination of photovoltaic, wind and biogas on the island of fehmarn, F.R.G. In: Sayigh AAM (ed) Energy and the environment. Pergamon, Oxford, pp 325–330Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Beyer HG, Langer C (1996) A method for the identification of configurations of PV/wind hybrid systems for the reliable supply of small loads. Sol Energy 57(5):381–391Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Cramer G (1990) Autonomous electrical power supply systems—wind/photovoltaic/diesel/battery. Solar Wind Technol 7(1):43–48Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    McGowan JG et al (1996) Hybrid wind/PV/diesel hybrid power systems modeling and South American applications. Renew Energ 9(1–4):836–847Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Bekele G, Tadesse G (2012) Feasibility study of small Hydro/PV/Wind hybrid system for off-grid rural electrification in Ethiopia. Appl Energ 97:5–15Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Glasnovic Z, Margeta J (2011) Vision of total renewable electricity scenario. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 15(4):1873–1884Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Ye L et al (2012) Dynamic modeling of a hybrid wind/solar/hydro microgrid in EMTP/ATP. Renew Energ 39(1):96–106Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Dufo-López R, Bernal-Agustín JL, Contreras J (2007) Optimization of control strategies for stand-alone renewable energy systems with hydrogen storage. Renew Energ 32(7):1102–1126Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Szatow T et al (2014) What happens when we un-plug? Exploring the consumer and market implications of viable, off-grid energy supplyGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Kim Y et al (2012) Networked architecture for hybrid electrical energy storage systems. In: Proceedings of the 49th ACM/Edac/IEEE design automation conference (Dac), pp 522–528Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Yu R, Kleissl J, Martinez S (2013) Storage size determination for grid-connected photovoltaic systems. Sustain Energy IEEE Trans 4(1):68–81Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Wang Y et al (2013) Optimal control of a grid-connected hybrid electrical energy storage system for homes. In: Design, automation and test in Europe conference and exhibition (DATE), pp 881–886Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Castillo-Cagigal M et al (2011) PV self-consumption optimization with storage and active DSM for the residential sector. Sol Energy 85(9):2338–2348Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Strbac G (2008) Demand side management: benefits and challenges. Energ Policy 36(12):4419–4426Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Tan DT et al (2008) Solar energy grid integration systems—energy storage (SEGIS-ES). Sandia National LaboratoriesGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Parkinson G (2013) Culture shock: network offers solar storage leases to customersGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kaveh Rajab Khalilpour
    • 1
  • Anthony Vassallo
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Chemical and Biomolecular EngineeringUniversity of SydneySydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations