The Role of Reverse Logistics in Recycling of Wood Products

Chapter
Part of the Environmental Footprints and Eco-design of Products and Processes book series (EFEPP)

Abstract

Consumer awareness, strengthened by legally imposed green constraints, has led to the need for the safe return of products from the field, as well as more environmentally friendly products. As a result, logistics planning must now consider both forward and return flows of products, parts, subassemblies, scrap, and packaging. Reverse logistics is the continuous logistic process through which shipped products move from the consumer back to the producer or recycling enterprises for possible reuse, recycling, remanufacturing, or disposal. The purpose of a reverse logistics process is to regain the value of returned materials or to provide the means for appropriate disposal. The transition from waste management to resource and recycling management, along with increasing price pressure and resource scarcity has required improved quality and efficiency from logistics systems. This applies to businesses from commercial and municipal waste management, as well as industry, trade, and service enterprises with in-house waste disposal tasks. The reverse supply chain includes a series of activities required to retrieve a used product from a customer and either dispose of it or reuse it. The design of efficient transport chains and the optimisation of complex logistics networks, similar to the optimisation of waste collection, waste transport, and waste handling, to give just a few examples, must be applied in the recycling management of all goods. In this chapter a case study of reverse logistics of waste wood and wood products is presented as the coordination and control; physical pickup and delivery of the material, parts, and products from the field to processing and recycling or disposal; and subsequent returns back to the field where appropriate. This includes descriptions of the services related to receiving the returns from the field, and the processes required to diagnose, evaluate, repair, and/or dispose of the returned units, products, parts, subassemblies, and material, either back to the direct/forward supply chain or into secondary markets or full disposal.

Keywords

Cascade use LCA Logistics Recovered wood Reuse Upgrading 

References

  1. Andel T (1995) There’s power in numbers. Transp Distrib 36(8):67–68Google Scholar
  2. Barros AI, Dekker R, Scholten V (1998) A two-level network for recycling sand: a case study. Eur J Oper Res 110(2):199–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bejune JJ (2001) Wood use trends in the pallet and container industry: 1992–1999 (Doctoral dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University)Google Scholar
  4. Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung/Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) (2014) The new high tech strategy innovations for Germany. Berlin. 53 ppGoogle Scholar
  5. CaReWood (2015) Cascading recovered wood. http://carewood.eu/. Accessed 29 March 2015
  6. Caruso C, Colorni A, Paruccini M (1993) The regional urban solid waste management system: A modelling approach. Eur J Oper Res 70(1):16–30Google Scholar
  7. Clegg A, Williams D, Uzsoy R (1995) Production planning for companies with remanufacturing capability. Paper presented at the International symposium on electronics and the environment ISEE, 1995Google Scholar
  8. COM (2012) 60 final (2012) Innovating for Sustainable Growth: A Bioeconomy for Europe; published on 13. February 2012; http://ec.europa.eu/research/bioeconomy/pdf/201202_innovating_sustainable_growth_en.pdf. Accessed 31 March 2015
  9. COM (2013) 659 final (2013) A new EU forest strategy: for forests and the forest-based sector; published on 20 September 2013; http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/forest/strategy/communication_en.pdf. Accessed 31 March 2015
  10. COM (2014) 0398 final (2014) Towards a circular economy: A zero waste programme for Europe; published on 2. July 2014; http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/NOT/?uri=CELEX:52014DC0398. Accessed 31 March 2015
  11. DEMOWOOD (2012) Optimisation of material recycling and energy recovery from waste and demolition wood in different value chains NWP2-ER-2009-235066, Deliverable for DL—WP2.1. http://www.wwnet-demowood.eu/fileadmin/PTS/Demowood/Dokumente/DL_WP2.1_Sorting%20Techniques_pts_120607.pdf. Accessed 29 March 2015
  12. DEMOWOOD (2013) Optimisation of material recycling and energy recovery from waste and demolition wood in different value chains NWP2-ER-2009-235066, Deliverable for DL—WP2.2. http://www.wwnet-demowood.eu/fileadmin/PTS/Demowood/Dokumente/DL_WP2.2_Quality%20Assessment%20of%20Waste%20Wood.pdf Accessed 29 March 2015
  13. DEMOWOOD (2015) Material recycling and energy recovery from waste and demolition wood. http://www.wwnet-demowood.eu/index.php?id=1354. Accessed 29 March 2015
  14. Direktoratet for Byggkvalitet/Directory for Building Quality (DFB) (2014) Bygg21: Sammen bygger vi framtiden/Bygg21: Together we build the future. Oslo. http://www.dibk.no/globalassets/bygg21/bygg21-strategien/bygg21_rapport.pdf. Accessed 29 March 2015
  15. European Commission (2011) A Roadmap for moving to a competitive low carbon economy in 2050. Communication. European Commission European Commission, Brussels. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:52011DC0112:EN:NOT
  16. European Parliament, Council (2008) Directive 2008/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008 on waste and repealing certain Directives. Directive. European Parliament European Parliament, Brussels. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32008L0098:EN:NOT
  17. Fleischmann M (2001) Reverse logistics network structures and design. In Business perspectives on closed-loop supply chains. http://ssrn.com/abstract=370907. Accessed 30 March 2015
  18. Fleischmann M, Bloemhof-Ruwaard JM, Dekker R, van der Laan E, van Nunen JA, Van Wassenhove LN (1997) Quantitative models for reverse logistics: a review. Eur J Oper Res 103(1):1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Forest-Based Sector Technology Platform (FTP) (2013a) Revised FTP strategic research and innovation agenda for 2020. Brussels. http://www.forestplatform.org/files/SRA_revision/Renewed_SRA_for_2020.pdf. Accessed 29 March 2015
  20. Forest-Based Sector Technology Platform (FTP) (2013b) Renewed FTP Vision 2030. Brussels. http://www.forestplatform.org/files/FTP_Vision_revision/FTP_Vision_final_Feb_2013.pdf. Accessed 29 March 2015
  21. FPS Cost Action E31 (2011) Management of recovered wood. http://www.cost.eu/COST_Actions/fps/Actions/E31. Accessed 29 March 2015
  22. Fraanje PJ (1997) Cascading of pine wood. Resour Conserv Recy 19:21–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gottinger WH (1988) A computational model for solid waste management with application. Eur J Oper Res 35(3):350–364Google Scholar
  24. Hall DO, Scrase JI (1998) Will biomass be the environmentally friendly fuel of the future? Biomass Bioenerg 15(4/5):357–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hasan AR, Schindler J, Solo-Gabriele HM, Townsend TG (2011) Online sorting of recovered wood waste by automated XRF-technology. Part I: Detection of preservative-treated wood waste. Waste Manage 31(4):688–694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hill C (2011) An introduction to sustainable resource use. Taylor and Francis, LondonGoogle Scholar
  27. Höglmeier K, Weber-Blaschke G, Richter K (2013) Potentials for cascading of recovered wood from building deconstruction—A case study for south-east Germany. Resour Conserv Recy 78:81–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hyun JK, Gerald WE (2005) A genetic algorithm-based heuristic for the dynamic integrated forward/reverse logistics network for 3PLs. Computers Oper Res 34(2):346–366Google Scholar
  29. Innovasjon Norge/Innovation Norway (2013) Mandat for arbeidet/Mandate for Work. Oslo. http://www.innovasjonnorge.no/PageFiles/468693/SKOG22%20-%20Mandat%20nov13.pdf. Accessed 29 March 2015
  30. IPCC (2007) Intergovernmental panel on climate change, fourth assessment report. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  31. IPCC (2012) Intergovernmental panel on climate change, renewable energy sources and climate change mitigation, special report. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  32. Isabel GS, Ana PB, Augusto QN (2007) An optimization model for the design of a capacitated multi-product reverse logistics network with uncertainty. Eur J Oper Res 172(3):1063–1077Google Scholar
  33. Kaufman L, Eede MV, Hansen P (1977) A plant and warehouse location problem. Oper Res 28:547–554Google Scholar
  34. Kim MH, Song HB (2014) Analysis of the global warming potential for wood waste recycling systems. J Clean Prod 69:199–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kitek Kuzman M (2010) Wood in contemporary Slovenian architecture Ljubljana: University of LjubljanaGoogle Scholar
  36. Kitek Kuzman M, Kutnar (2014) A contemporary Slovenian timber architecture for sustainability. SpringerGoogle Scholar
  37. Kommunal- og moderniseringsdepartementet/Ministry of Local Government and Regional Development (KOG) (2012). Meld. St. 28 (2011–2012): Gode bygg for eit betre samfunn/Report St. 28 (2011–2012) Good building for a better society. Oslo. https://www.regjeringen.no/nb/dokumenter/meld-st-28-20112012/id685179/. Accessed 29 March 2015
  38. Kopicki R, Berg MJ, Legg L (1993) Reuse and recycling - reverse logistics opportunities. United States: Council of Logistics Management, Oak Brook, IL (United States)Google Scholar
  39. Kušar J (2010) Foreward. In: Kitek-Kuzman M (ed) Wood in contemporary Slovenian architecture. University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, p 19Google Scholar
  40. Kutnar A, Hill C (2014) Assessment of carbon footprinting in the wood industry. In: Muthu SS (ed) Assessment of carbon footprint in different industrial sectors, vol 2 (EcoProduction). Singapore [etc.]. Springer, Singapore, pp 135–172Google Scholar
  41. Letureq P (2014) Wood preservation (carbon sequestration) or wood burning (fossil-fuel substitution), which is better for mitigating climate change? Ann For Sci 71:117–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. McKeever DB, Falk RH (2004) Woody residues and solid waste wood available for recovery in the United States, 2002. Management of recovered wood—Recycling bioenergy and other options, Thessaloniki, pp 22–24Google Scholar
  43. Rivela B, Hospido A, Moreira T, Feijoo G (2006a) Life cycle inventory of particleboard: a case study in the wood sector. Int J LCA 11(2):106–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Rivela B, Moreira M, Muñoz I, Rieradevall J, Feijoo (2006b) Life cycle assessment of wood wastes: a case study of ephemeral architecture. Sci Total Env 357(1–3):1–11Google Scholar
  45. Simons PHW (1998) Reverse Logistics at Trespa International B.V (in Dutch). In: van Goor A, Flapper R, Clement SDP, Kluwer C, Deventer BV (eds) Handbook reverse logistics, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  46. Spengler T, Püchert H, Penkuhn T, and Rentz O (1997) Environmental integrated production and recycling management. In: Produktion und Umwelt, pp 239–257Google Scholar
  47. Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia (2004) Buildings with dwellings by material of the bearing structure of the building, type of roofing, type of construction and type of settlement—Census, 2002. Ljubljana, Slovenia. http://pxweb.stat.si/pxweb/Dialog/varval.asp?ma=05W1806E&ti=&path=../Database/Census2002/04_Slovenia/04_05W18_Buildings_dwellings/&lang=1. Accessed 29 March 2015
  48. Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia (2014a) Waste generation and treatment from production and service activities by list of waste (LoW). http://pxweb.stat.si/pxweb/Dialog/varval.asp?ma=2706308E&ti=&path=../Database/Environment/27_environment/02_waste/02_27063_production_waste/&lang=1. Accessed 29 March 2015
  49. Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia (2014b) Municipal waste generated and treatment. Ljubljana, Slovenia. http://pxweb.stat.si/pxweb/Dialog/varval.asp?ma=2706101E&ti=&path=../Database/Environment/27_environment/02_waste/01_27061_waste_removal/&lang=1. Accessed 29 March 2015
  50. Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia (2014c). Renewable energy and waste use. Ljubljana, Slovenia. http://pxweb.stat.si/pxweb/Dialog/varval.asp?ma=1822303E&ti=&path=../Database/Environment/18_energy/05_18223_renewables_wastes/&lang=1. Accessed 29 March 2015
  51. Stock JR (1998) Development and implementation of reverse logistics programs. Council of Logistics Management, Oak Brook, ILGoogle Scholar
  52. Tavzes Č, Kutnar A (2012) Koncept “kaskade” ali “spirale” uporabe lesa. In: Kitek Kuzman M. Lesene konstrukcije v stanovanjski in javni gradnji: Slovenija. Ljubljana, Biotehniška fakulteta, Oddelek za lesarstvo, Fakulteta za arhitekturo, p 38Google Scholar
  53. Vandermerwe S, Oliff MD (1990) Customers drive corporations green. Long Range Plan 23(6):10–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Wang M (2005) Energy and greenhouse gas emissions impacts of fuel ethanol. Center for transportation research energy system division, Argonne National Laboratory. NGCA Renewable fuels forum, the national Press club, 23 Aug 2005Google Scholar
  55. Werner F, Taverna R, Hofer P, Richter K (2006) Greenhouse gas dynamics of an increased use of wood in buildings in Switzerland. Clim Change 74:319–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Young J (1996) Reverse logistics: what goes around comes around. APICS-The performance advantage, p 75Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Primorska Andrej Marušič InstituteKoperSlovenia
  2. 2.Faculty of Mathematics, Natural Sciences and Information TechnologiesUniversity of PrimorskaKoperSlovenia
  3. 3.Faculty of Computer and Information ScienceUniversity of LjubljanaLjubljanaSlovenia

Personalised recommendations