A Review of Integrated Approaches to the Study of Creativity: A Proposal for a Systems Framework for Creativity

Part of the Creativity in the Twenty First Century book series (CTFC)


Since the inception of creativity research, creativity has been thought of and described in terms of the 4Ps: person, product, process and press (Rhodes in The Phi Delta Kappan 42(7):305–310, 1961). Each component has been favoured during different decades of the twentieth century and has settled into different sub-disciplines of psychology as well as other areas such as human resources, management and entrepreneurial studies. This monolithic approach is useful in understanding a certain aspect of creativity such as personality, however, the 4Ps do not happen in isolation. Although Rhodes’ model suggested that all four “Ps” should be viewed in conjunction with one another, little contemporary research has used a more integrated approach. This chapter has three main aims. Firstly, to provide a review of the current models that take on an integrated, ecological, or systems approach to the study of creativity. These models will then be assessed for their strengths, weaknesses and their contribution to understanding creativity as a multi-faceted phenomenon. Lastly, this chapter will propose a framework for a new, integrated model for the study of creativity that synthesises the strengths from extant models and addresses the weaknesses that were identified in the review.


Creative Individual Componential Theory Extant Model Creative People Creative Person 
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© Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of EngineeringUniversity of South AustraliaAdelaideAustralia

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