The Construction of Media in Education Policies: A Comparative Study of Singapore and Taiwan

  • Tzu-Bin LinEmail author
  • William Choy
Part of the Education Innovation Series book series (EDIN)


During the education reform movement starting in the mid-1990s, many educational initiatives from the Western countries have been introduced to the East Asian region. Media literacy education is one of the travelling policy discourses that is getting more significant in some Asian countries such as Taiwan and Singapore. This chapter aims to explore how media literacy is defined and articulated in the education policies in Singapore and Taiwan and seeks to discuss if the construction of policy discourses is similar or different from their origin in the Western countries, especially in the UK. This study is an ‘analysis of policy’ (Rizvi and Lingard, Globalizing education policy. Routledge, London, 2010), which focuses on critically reviewing the existing policies on media literacy. Data are collected from policy-related documents and government websites. This chapter will offer a comparative study of media literacy in formal education and explains how the Western discourse is localised in Asian context.


Media literacy education Policy analysis Singapore Taiwan 


  1. Ball, S. (2006). Education policy and social class: The selected works of Stephen J. Ball. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  2. Buckingham, D. (2003). Media education: Literacy, learning and contemporary culture. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  3. Buckingham, D. (2007). Media education goes digital: An introduction. Learning, Media and Technology, 32(2), 111–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Buckingham, D. (2009). The future of media literacy in the digital age: Some challenges for policy and practice.
  5. Buckingham, D., & Domaille, K. (2009). Making media education happen: A global view. In C.-K. Cheung (Ed.), Media education in Asia (pp. 19–30). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Burn, A., & Durran, J. (2007). Media literacy in schools: Practice, production and progression. London: Paul Champman Publishing Ltd.Google Scholar
  7. Burroughs, S., Brocato, K., Hopper, P. F., & Sanders, A. (2009). Media literacy: A central component of democratic citizenship. The Educational Forum, 73(2), 154–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cappello, G., Felini, D., & Hobbs, R. (2011). Reflections on global developments in media literacy education: Bridging theory and practice. Journal of Media Literacy Education, 3(2), 66–73.Google Scholar
  9. Chen, D.-T., Wu, J., & Wang, Y.-M. (2011). Unpacking new media literacy. Journal on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, 9(2), 84–88.Google Scholar
  10. Cheung, C. K. (2009). Media education across four Asian societies: Issues and themes. International Review of Education/Internationale Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft, 55(1), 39–58. doi: 10.1007/s11159-008-9111-2.Google Scholar
  11. Cortés, C. E. (2000). The children are watching: How media teach about diversity. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  12. Dennis, E. E. (2004). Out of sight and out of mind: The media literacy needs of grown-ups. American Behavioral Scientist, 48(2), 202–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. European. (2007). A European approach to media literacy in the digital environment. Retrieved July 2009, from
  14. Goodman, S. (2003). Teaching youth media: A critical guide to literacy, video production, and social change. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  15. Hobbs, R. (1998). The seven great debates in the media literacy movement. Journal of Communication, 48(1), 16–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jenkins, H. (2006). Convergence culture: Where old and new media collide. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Lavender, T. (2003). Curriculum and teacher training in Scotland. In T. Lavender & B. Tufte (Eds.), Global trends in media education: Policies and practices (pp. 11–36). Cresskill: Hampton Press, INC.Google Scholar
  18. Leavis, F. R., & Thompson, D. (1933). Culture and environment: The training of critical awareness. London: Chatto & Windus.Google Scholar
  19. Leaning, M. (2009). Theories and models of media literacy. In M. Leaning (Ed.), Issues in information and media literacy: Criticism, history and policy (pp. 1–18). Santa Rosa: Informing Science Press.Google Scholar
  20. Lim, S. S., & Nekmat, E. (2008). Learning through ‘prosuming’: Insights from media literacy programmes in Asia. Science, Technology and Society, 13(2), 259–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lin, T. (2009). Navigating through the mist: Media literacy education in Taiwan. In C.-K. Cheung (Ed.), Media education in Asia (pp. 165–184). Heidelberg: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lin, T. (2010). Conceptualising media literacy: Discourses of media education. Media Education Research Journal, 1(1), 29–42.Google Scholar
  23. Lin, T. (2011). Literacy in digital era: Discourses of media literacy and its role in Singapore education. In W. Choy & C. Tan (Eds.), Education reform in Singapore: Critical perspectives (pp. 66–79). Singapore: Pearson.Google Scholar
  24. Lister, M., Dovey, J., Giddings, S., Grant, I., & Kelly, K. (2003). New media: A critical introduction. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  25. Livingstone, S., Van Couvering, E., & Thumim, N. (2004). Adult Media Literacy - A review of the research literature on behalf of Ofcom (pp. 1–86). Office of Communications, UK.Google Scholar
  26. Media Development Authority of Singapore. (2003). Media 21: Transforming Singapore into a global media city. Singapore: Media Development Authority of Singapore.Google Scholar
  27. Media Development Authority of Singapore. (2011a). Overview of the media development authority of Singapore. Retrieved November 20, 2012, from
  28. Media Development Authority of Singapore. (2011b). Media literacy. Retrieved February 12, 2011, from
  29. Media Development Authority (Singapore). (2012). New council to oversee cyber wellness, media literacy initiatives. Retrieved 20 Aug, 2012.Google Scholar
  30. Ministry of Education. (2010). MOE to enhance learning of 21st Century competencies and strengthen Art, Music and Physical Education. Retrieved 21 July, 2010, from
  31. Ministry of Education, Singapore. (2012). About MOE. Retrieved November 20, 2012, from
  32. Ministry of Education, Taiwan. (2002). The white paper on media literacy education. Taipei: Ministry of Education.Google Scholar
  33. National Institute of Education, Singapore. (2009). TE21: A teacher education model for the 21st century. Singapore: National Institute of Education.Google Scholar
  34. National Institute of Education, Singapore. (2012). About NIE. Retrieved November 20, 2012, from
  35. Rizvi, F., & Lingard, B. (2010). Globalizing education policy. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  36. Schwarz, G. (2005). Overview: What is media literacy, who cares, and why? In G. Schwarz & P. Brown (Eds.), Media literacy: Transforming curriculum and teaching (pp. 5–17). Malden: Blackwell Publishing.Google Scholar
  37. Thoman, E., & Jolls, T. (2008). Literacy for the 21st century: An overview & orientation guide to media literacy (2nd ed.). Retrieved October 1, 2008, from
  38. UNESCO. (1982). Grunwald declaration on media education. Grunwald, Germany: UNESCO Retrieved from
  39. Wu, S. (2002). Advertisements are not just for selling goods [Electronic Version]. Retrieved 2003 from Wu, S. (2002). New concept in education: Media education.
  40. Wu, S., & Chen, S. (2007). Media literacy education (媒体素养教育). Taipei: Chiuliu.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of EducationNational Taiwan Normal UniversityTaipeiTaiwan
  2. 2.National Institute of EducationNanyang Technological UniversitySingaporeSingapore

Personalised recommendations