Skip to main content

Great Ideas Float to the Top

Part of the Ocean Engineering & Oceanography book series (OEO,volume 3)


Coastal land pressures due to urban population growth have seen various cities embrace the use of floating structures to extend their cities into their surrounding ocean space. Simultaneously, the need to go further into deeper waters to extract resources has also driven the development of innovative floating structures. This chapter introduces the developments in the area of predominantly static large scale floating structures. It begins with a review of the advantages of employing floating structures over traditional land reclamation technologies in availing habitable space; and the basic technical elements that underpin the technology. A brief history of the evolution of floating structures is then presented, before a survey of the examples of floating structures in a variety of uses and sites is ventured. Finally, the authors conclude with the ambitious and possible future uses of these large-scale floating structures in meeting our coming urban needs.


  • Wave Force
  • Mooring Line
  • Mooring System
  • Floating Structure
  • Oscillate Water Column

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-981-287-137-4_1
  • Chapter length: 36 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
USD   109.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-981-287-137-4
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Hardcover Book
USD   219.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16
Fig. 17
Fig. 18
Fig. 19
Fig. 20
Fig. 21
Fig. 22
Fig. 23
Fig. 24
Fig. 25
Fig. 26
Fig. 27
Fig. 28
Fig. 29
Fig. 30
Fig. 31
Fig. 32
Fig. 33
Fig. 34
Fig. 35
Fig. 36
Fig. 37
Fig. 38
Fig. 39
Fig. 40
Fig. 41
Fig. 42


  1. 1.

    The authors in this book use 'ocean space' in a broad manner to encompass the surface of large water bodies adjacent to urban centres.

  2. 2.

    “Riau sand exports take toll on environment”, Haidir Anwar, The Jakarta Post, July 3, 2001.

  3. 3.

    “Flood threat from Singapore alleged”, The Straits Times, March 21, 2002.

  4. 4.

    “Singapore reclamation works ‘hurt Johor fishing”, The Straits Times, July 9, 2003.

  5. 5.

    “Local media absorbed by land reclamation issue”, The Straits Times, Singapore, March 13, 2002.

  6. 6.

    “Time And Money Are No Object for Harbour Upgrade in Monaco”, Peter Reina,, June 3, 2002.

  7. 7.

    “Floating Concrete Container Terminal at Valdez, Alaska”, Concrete Construction, February 1, 1983.

  8. 8.

    “Stalin’s Atlantis: This Is What’s Left Of The Former Soviet Union’s Floating Oil Town”, Becket A., November 16, 2012,

  9. 9.

    “Offshore Drilling: History and Overview”,, June 25, 2010.

  10. 10.

    Retrieved from:

  11. 11.

    “Seoul Floating Islands”, Haeahn Architecture, H Architecture,, July 12, 2012.

  12. 12.

    “Akademik Lomonosov Floating Nuclear Co-generation Plant, Russian Federation”,

  13. 13.

    “Fukushima Floating Offshore Wind Farm Demonstration Project (Fukushima FORWARD)”,Prof Takeshi Ishihara, University of Tokyo, Retrieved from:


  • Bureau of Yards and Docks (1947). The continental bases, building the Navy’s bases in world war II. Chapter 9—floating Drydocks, Vol. I, part II, history of the bureau of yards and docks and the civil engineer corps 1940–1946. Retrieved from

  • Clauss, G., Lehmann, E., & Ostergaard, C. (1992). Conceptual design and hydromechanics. Offshore structures (Vol. 1). Berlin: Springer-Verlag. (Translated by M.J. Shields).

    Google Scholar 

  • Fraenkel, P. (2000). Renewable option 5: Marine power—harvesting the power of the sea. Retrieved June 2004, from (

  • Hara, S., Yamakawa, K., Hoshino, K., & Yukawa, K. (2004). At-sea towing of a mega-float unit. Journal of Marine Science and Technology, 8(3), 138–146.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hosam El-Din, H. S., Alaa, M. R, Basil, A. S. (2010). Durability and strength evaluation of high-performance concrete in marine structures. Journal of Construction and Building Materials, 24(6), 878–884.

    Google Scholar 

  • Koekoek, M. (2010). Connecting modular floating structures—general survey and structural design of a modular floating pavilion. Master thesis. The Netherlands: T.U. Delft and Engineering Company Public Works, Rotterdam.

    Google Scholar 

  • Koh, H. S., & Lim, Y. B. (2008). The mega floating platform at Marina Bay. Proceedings of the Conference on Iconic Structures in Singapore and Asia (pp. 145–160). Singapore: IStructE Singapore Regional Group.

    Google Scholar 

  • Maeda, H., Rheem, C. K., Washio, Y., Osawa, H., Nagata, Y., Ikoma, T., & et al. (2001). Reduction effects of hydroelastic responses on a very large floating structure with wave energy absorption devices using OWC system. Proceedings of 20th Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering Conference. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Google Scholar 

  • Main(e) International Consulting LLC (2013, May). Floating offshore wind foundations: Industry consortia and projects in the United States, Europe and Japan: An overview. Retrieved from

  • Mazzolani, F. M., et al. (2008). Structural analysis of the submerged floating tunnel prototype in Qiandao Lake (PR of China). Journal of Advances in Structural Engineering, 11(4), 439–454.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Merchant, A. A. (2010). Keppel mega semi-submersibles. Proceedings of the Conference on Structural Marvels (pp. 81–110). Singapore: IStructE Singapore Regional Group.

    Google Scholar 

  • Moan, T. (2004, September 12–17). Safety of floating offshore structures. Proceedings of 9th PRADS Conference. Germany: Luebeck-Travemuende.

    Google Scholar 

  • Suzuki, H., Yoshida, K., & Iijima K. (1996a). A consideration of the structural design of a large-scale floating structure. Journal of Marine Science and Technology, 1(5), 255–267.

    Google Scholar 

  • Suzuki, H., & Yoshida, K. (1996b). Design flow and strategy for safety of very large floating structures. Proceedings of International Workshop on Very Large Floating Structures. Hayama, Japan.

    Google Scholar 

  • Suzuki, H. (2005). Overview of Megafloat: Concept, design criteria, analysis and design. Marine Structures, 18, 111–132.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Takahashi, S. (1996). Design of vertical breakwaters. Reference document No. 34. Japan: Port and Harbour Research Institute, Ministry of Transport.

    Google Scholar 

  • The Hetch Co. (1945, May). Miracle harbor—we’ll take our harbors with us. British information services. Retrieved from

  • Wang, C. M., Utsunomiya, T., Wee, S. C., & Choo, Y. S. (2010). Research on floating wind turbines: a literature survey. IES Journal Part A: Civil and Structural Engineering, 3(4), 267–277.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wang, C. M., Yee, A. A., Krock, H., & Tay, Z. Y. (2011). Research and developments on ocean thermal energy conversion. IES Journal Part A: Civil and Structural Engineering, 4(1), 41–52.

    Google Scholar 

  • Watanabe, E., Wang, C. M., Utsunomiya, T., & Moan, T. (2004). Very large floating structures: Applications, analysis and design. CORE Report No. 2004–02. Singapore: National University of Singapore.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wong, L. H., Tan, H. S., Wang, C. L., Lim, H., Ho, H. C., Wang, C. M., et al. (2013). Floating wetlands at Punggol. The IES Journal Part A: Civil and Structural Engineering, 6(4), 249–257.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to C. M. Wang .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Singapore

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Wang, C.M., Wang, B.T. (2015). Great Ideas Float to the Top. In: Wang, C., Wang, B. (eds) Large Floating Structures. Ocean Engineering & Oceanography, vol 3. Springer, Singapore.

Download citation

  • DOI:

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Singapore

  • Print ISBN: 978-981-287-136-7

  • Online ISBN: 978-981-287-137-4

  • eBook Packages: EngineeringEngineering (R0)