Advertisement

Refugees, Immigrants and HIV/AIDS

  • AKM Ahsan Ullah
  • Ahmed Shafiqul Huque
Chapter
  • 421 Downloads

Abstract

This chapter offers an overview of the global pattern, flow, magnitude of the refugees and HIV/AIDS pandemic and outlines the main argument, research problem and questions. It reviews global data on refugees, the identification and transmission of the HIV/AIDS virus and consequent impacts. The pandemic has spread rapidly worldwide, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. According to the UNAIDS, 47.5 million people in the world were living with HIV/AIDS in 2010. Globally, it appears that refugee populations are heavily affected by this pandemic that so far has claimed, and continues to claim, millions of lives and caused suffering to many people and their communities.

The growing number of refugees has become a matter of global concern. At present, refugees from any country are entitled to seek protection in one of the 147 countries which are party to the 1951 Refugee Convention. Refugee status is important for the rights it bestows under international law. A refugee is entitled to reside, at least temporarily, in the host country and is protected by the principle of non-refoulement. Host states are obliged to offer civil and economic rights, and refugees enjoy access to social services and protection of national laws. This chapter also sets out the objectives of this book and outlines the content of all the chapters to highlight the common theme.

Keywords

Sexual Orientation Asylum Seeker South Asian Woman Great Stigmatization Refugee Claimant 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Adams, J. S. (1965). Inequity in social exchange. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  2. Alonzo, A. A., & Reynolds, N. R. (1995). Stigma, HIV and AIDS: An exploration and elaboration of a stigma trajectory. Social Science and Medicine, 41(3), 303–315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Blank, R. M., Dabady, M., & Citro, C. F. (Eds.). (2004). Measuring racial discrimination. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences/National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  4. Blumberg, H. M. (2000). Tuberculosis infection control. In L. B. Riechman & E. S. Hershfield (Eds.), Tuberculosis: A comprehensive international approach (2nd ed.). New York: Marcel Dekker.Google Scholar
  5. Botnick, M. R. (2000). Part 1: HIV as ‘the line in the sand’. Journal of Homosexuality, 38(4), 39–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brouard, P. (2006). A closer look: The internalization of stigma related to HIV. United States Agency for International Development (USAID). Center for the Study of AIDS/University of Pretoria, and Caroline Wills, POLICY.Google Scholar
  7. Care India. (2011, October). Vulnerability to HIV & AIDS: A social research on cross border mobile populations from Nepal to India (p. 1).Google Scholar
  8. Carlisle, C. (2000). The search for meaning in HIV and AIDS: The carers’ experience. Qualitative Health Research, 10(6), 750–765.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Castells, M. (1996). The Network Society. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers Inc.Google Scholar
  10. Castells, M. (1998). End of millennium. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers Inc.Google Scholar
  11. Castro, A., & Farmer, P. (2005). Understanding and addressing AIDS-related stigma: From anthropological theory to clinical practice in Haiti. American Journal of Public Health, 95(1), 53–59.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. CATIE (Canadian AIDS Treatment Information Exchange). (2010). HIV in Canada, trends and issues that affect HIV prevention, CARE, treatment and support. Toronto: CATIE.Google Scholar
  13. CIC. (2007). Facts and figures: Immigration overview-permanent and temporary residents. Ottawa: CIC.Google Scholar
  14. Clark, R., Anderson, N. B., Clark, V. R., & Williams, D. R. (1999). Racism as a stressor for African Americans: A biopsychosocial model. American Psychologist, 54(10), 805–816.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Courtenay-Quirk, C., Wolitski, R. J., Parsons, J. T., Gómez, C. A., & Seropositive Urban Men’s Study Team. (2006). Is HIV/AIDS stigma dividing the gay community? Perceptions of HIV-positive men who have sex with men. AIDS Education and Prevention, 18(1), 56–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. CPHA. (2005). Leading together: Canada takes action on HIV/AIDS (2005–2010). Ottawa: Canadian Public Health Association.Google Scholar
  17. Cullinan, K. (2001, September 6). Health System Trust South Africa.Google Scholar
  18. Deacon, H., Prosalendis, S., & Stephney, I. (2004). Understanding HIV/AIDS stigma: A theoretical and methodological analysis. Cape Town: HSRC Press.Google Scholar
  19. DeVoretz, D., Pivnenko, S., & Coulombe, D. S. (2003). The immigration triangle: Quebec, Canada and the rest of the world (RIIM Working Paper No. 03-11). Vancouver: Simon Fraser University, Centre of Excellence, Immigration.Google Scholar
  20. Dion, K. L. (2001). The social psychology of perceived prejudice and discrimination. Canadian Psychology, 43(1), 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fernandes, A. P., Sanches, R. S., Mill, J., Lucy, D., Palha, P. F., & Dalri, M. C. (2007). Lipodystrophy syndrome associated with antiretroviral therapy in HIV patients: Considerations for psychosocial aspects. Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem, 15(5), 1041–1045.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Goffman, E. (1963). Stigma: Notes on management of spoiled identity. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  23. Haag, D., & Gilbert, M. (2007, December). Trends in HIV positive immigrants and reporting by Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) 2000–2007. Vancouver: Center for Disease Control (CDC).Google Scholar
  24. Human Rights First. (2011). Combating xenophobic violence: A framework for action. New York: Human Rights First.Google Scholar
  25. International Center for Research on Women (ICRW). (2002). Addressing HIV-related stigma and resulting discrimination in Africa: a three country study in Ethiopia, Tanzania, and Zambia. Washington, DC: ICRW.Google Scholar
  26. Kitsuse, J. (1962). Societal reactions to deviant behavior: Problems of theory and method. Social Problems, 9(3), 247–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kleinman, A., & Hall-Clifford, R. (2013). Stigma: A social, cultural, and moral process. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 63(6), 418–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kollapan, J. (1999, October 7). Xenophobia in South Africa: The challenge to forced migration. Unpublished Seminar. Graduate School: University of the Witwatersrand.Google Scholar
  29. Maxwell, J. (1998). Positive perspectives: A qualitative examination of issues facing HIV positive gay men in Toronto. Gay Men’s Health Promotion. Available from: http://www.actoronto.org/research.nsf/Pages/positive+perspectives. Accessed 26 Aug 2010.
  30. Moller, V. (1998). Quality of life in South Africa: Post-apartheid trends. Social Indicators Research, 43(1–2), 27–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Parker, R., & Aggleton, P. (2002a, May). HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination: A conceptual framework and agenda for action. Report prepared by the Population Council. Available from: www.popcouncil.org/pdfs/horizons/sdcncptlfrmwrk.pdf. Accessed 26 Aug 2010.
  32. Persson, A. (2005). Facing HIV: Body shape change and the (in)visibility of illness. Medical Anthropology, 24(3), 237–264.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. PHAC. (2010). HIV and AIDS in Canada. Surveillance report to 31 December, 2009. Ottawa: Surveillance and Risk Assessment Division, Centre for Communicable Diseases and Infection Control, Public Health Agency of Canada.Google Scholar
  34. Raymond, H. F., & McFarland, W. (2009). Racial mixing and HIV risk among men who have sex with men. AIDS and Behavior, 13(4), 630–637.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Seidman, G. (1999). Is South Africa different? Sociological comparisons and theoretical contributions from the Land of Apartheid. Annual Review of Sociology, 25, 419–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sheth, L. (2001, August). First national meeting on HIV/AIDS prevention in the South Asian Population in the U.S., Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  37. Sinclair, M. R. (1998). Community, identity and gender in migrant societies of southern Africa: Emerging epistemological challenges. International Affairs, 74(2), 339–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Sinclair, M. R. (1999). ‘I know a place that is softer than this …’ emerging migrant communities in South Africa. International Migration, 37(2), 465–481.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Smit, P. J., Brady, M., Carter, M., Fernandes, R., Lamore, L., Meulbroek, M., Ohayon, M., Platteau, T., Rehberg, P., Rockstroh, J. K., & Thompson, M. (2012). HIV-related stigma within communities of gay men: A literature review. AIDS Care, 24(3–4), 405–412.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Stutterheim, S. E., Bos, A. E. R., & Schaalma, H. P. (2008). HIV-related stigma in the Netherlands. Amsterdam/Maastricht: Dutch Aids Fonds (Aids Fund).Google Scholar
  41. Sztompka, P. (2008). The focus on everyday life: A new turn in sociology. European Review, 16(1), 23–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Turner, R. J., & Lloyd, D. A. (1999). The stress process and the social distribution of depression. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 40(4), 374–404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Turton, W. R., & Chalmers, B. E. (1990). Apartheid, stress and illness: The demographics context of distress reported by South African Africans. Social Science and Medicine, 31(11), 1191–2000.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ullah, A. K. M. A. (2010a). Rationalizing migration decisions: Labour migrants in South and South-East Asia. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  45. Ullah, A. K. M. A. (2011, March/April). HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination: A study on health care providers in Bangladesh. Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care (JIAPAC), 10, 97–104.Google Scholar
  46. Ullah, A. K. M. A. (2013a). Irregular migrants, human rights and securitization in Malaysia: A policy analysis. In C. Tazreiter (Ed.), Globalization and social transformation in the Asia Pacific: The Australian and Malaysian experience (pp. 270–295). London: Palgrave McMillan.Google Scholar
  47. Ullah, A. K. M. A. (2014). Refugee politics in the Middle East and the Africa: Human rights, safety and identity. London: Palgrave McMillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. UNAIDS. (2005). HIV – Related stigma, discrimination and human rights violations: Case studies of successful programmes. Geneva: UNAIDS.Google Scholar
  49. UNAIDS. (2006). Report on the global AIDS epidemic. Geneva: UNAIDS.Google Scholar
  50. UNAIDS. (2007a). AIDS epidemic update. Geneva: UNAIDS/WHO.Google Scholar
  51. UNAIDS. (2010). Global report: UNAIDS report on the global AIDS epidemic, 2010. Geneva: UNAIDS.Google Scholar
  52. UNAIDS. (2011a). Global AIDS response progress reporting 2012: Guidelines, construction of core indicators for monitoring the 2011 political declaration on HIV/AIDS. Geneva: UNAIDS.Google Scholar
  53. UNAIDS. (2011b). UNAIDS World AIDS day report. Geneva: UNAIDS.Google Scholar
  54. UNAIDS. (2012a). Report on the global AIDS epidemic. Geneva: UN Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS.Google Scholar
  55. UNFPA. (2006). Gender and HIV/AIDS resource pack. HIV/AIDS and Gender-Based Violence (GBV) Literature Review.Google Scholar
  56. United Nations. (2001). Discrimination. Extract from the report on the world social situation 1997, Chapter VIII presented by Larry Willmore. New York: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs.Google Scholar
  57. United Nations. (2002, June). Introducing governance into HIV/AIDS programmes: People’s Republic of China, Lao PDR and Vietnam. Bangkok: South East Asia HIV and Development ProgrammeGoogle Scholar
  58. Weatherburn, P., Keogh, P., Dodds, C., Bourne, A., Owuor, J., Hammond, G., & Jessup, K. (2009). What do you need? 2007–2008: Findings from a national survey of people diagnosed with HIV. London: Sigma Research.Google Scholar
  59. Wheaton, B. (1985). Models for the stress-buffering functions of coping resources. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 26(4), 352–364.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. White, M. (2004). Working with people who are suffering the consequences of multiple trauma: A narrative perspective. The International Journal of Narrative Therapy and Community Work, 1, 45–76.Google Scholar
  61. WHO. (2008). Health of migrants—Report by the Secretariat. Available from www.who.int/gb/ebwha/pdf_files/A61/A61_12-en.pdf
  62. WHO. (2010). PMTCT strategic vision. Geneva: WHO Press.Google Scholar
  63. Yoshioka, M. R., & Schustack, A. (2001). Disclosure of HIV status: Cultural issues of Asian patients. AIDS Patient Care and STDs, 15(2), 77–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Zaidi, I. F., Crepaz, N., Song, R., Wan, C. K., Lin, L. S., Hu, D. J., & Sy, F. S. (2005). Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS among Asians and Pacific Islanders in the United States. AIDS Education and Prevention, 17(5), 405–417.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • AKM Ahsan Ullah
    • 1
  • Ahmed Shafiqul Huque
    • 2
  1. 1.Universiti Brunei Darussalam (UBD)Bandar Seri BegawanBrunei Darussalam
  2. 2.Department of Political ScienceMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada

Personalised recommendations