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Transformation of China’s Employment Structure Since the Reform and Opening-Up

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Social and Economic Transitions in China and India
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Abstract

Since the beginning of Economic Reform, hundreds of millions of population have moved from rural to urban areas, from agriculture to industry and service sectors, and from the central and west region to east coast. Such change has contributed to the productivity increase, economic growth and social development. Meanwhile, there are still some problems that undermine efforts of the reform, including imbalance of labour supply and demand, employment structure and regional employment. The reasons rely on population transformation, education structure, low urbanization rate, slow industry upgrading and institutional barriers. Further reforms on these areas will accelerate the labour transfer and enhance employment structure balance.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    The report can be found at State Council website http://www.gov.cn/xinwen/2021-04/30/content_5604232.htm, May 12, 2021 logged on.

  2. 2.

    The data can be found at National Bureau of Statistics website http://www.stats.gov.cn/ztjc/ztfx/fxbg/201003/t20100319_16135.html, May 12, 2021 logged on.

  3. 3.

    The data can be found at State Council website http://www.gov.cn/xinwen/2021-04/30/content_5604232.htm, May 12, 2021 logged on.

  4. 4.

    Latest Survey Report on the Impact of Financial Crisis on Employment, Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security, 2009, http://www.mohrss.gov.cn/mohrss/Desktop.aspx?path=mohrss/mohrss/InfoView&gid=1797bb22-6a46-4fc9-a46f-b16dcbb83d0b&tid=Cms_Info.

  5. 5.

    Data can be found at the website of National Bureau of Statistics, http://data.stats.gov.cn.

  6. 6.

    Data can be found in China Population and Employment Statistical Yearbook 2003–2020, China Statistical Press.

  7. 7.

    Data can be found in http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/zxfb/202105/t20210510_1817181.html, May 12 2020 logged on.

  8. 8.

    Data can be found in China Population and Employment Statistical Yearbook 2002–2020, China Statistical Press.

  9. 9.

    Data can be found in China Population and Employment Statistical Yearbook 2007–2020, China Statistical Press.

  10. 10.

    Data can be found at http://www.mohrss.gov.cn/SYrlzyhshbzb/zwgk/szrs/sjfx/202007/t20200727_380800.html, May 12, 2021 logged on.

  11. 11.

    The data can be found at http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/zxfb/202105/t20210510_1817176.html, May 12, 2021 logged on.

  12. 12.

    The data can be found at the website of National Bureau of Statistics, http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/zxfb/201305/t20130527_12978.html, http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/zxfb/202104/t20210430_1816933.html, May 12, 2021 logged on.

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Zhaoyang, S. (2022). Transformation of China’s Employment Structure Since the Reform and Opening-Up. In: Nakray, K., Yi, Z., Clammer, J., Zhang, W. (eds) Social and Economic Transitions in China and India. Palgrave Macmillan, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-6124-3_5

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-6124-3_5

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  • Publisher Name: Palgrave Macmillan, Singapore

  • Print ISBN: 978-981-19-6123-6

  • Online ISBN: 978-981-19-6124-3

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