Skip to main content

A Numerical Study on Phase Transformation and Hardness Evolution During Scanning Induction Hardening

  • Conference paper
  • First Online:
Proceedings of 10th International Conference on Mechatronics and Control Engineering (ICMCE 2021)


Induction hardening is a heat treatment that is frequently used to improve the mechanical properties of the surface of components typically subjected to contact loads, such as bearings or gears, extending component life. The simulation of the induction hardening process is very complex and time-consuming, which increases time-to-market in new industrial processes as the typical approach to define the induction hardening parameters is trial and error. In this work, we present a numerical study on the evolution of microstructural phases and hardness prediction for a complex industrial case, where the induction hardening process of a large-size pitch bearing is simulated. This kind of component is hardened by scanning, where there is relative movement between the inductor and workpiece and the inductor is followed by a quenching shower. Simulating scanning induction hardening is especially challenging as simultaneous heating and cooling occur, increasing the multiphysical interactions that must be simulated. The results show the evolution of the microstructure during induction heating and subsequent quenching accompanied by a prediction on the hardened case. A homogeneous hardened within the industrial span can be achieved in the workpiece after the combined static-scanning hardening is applied in the study.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
USD 149.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 199.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions


  1. Rudnev V, Loveless D, Cook RL (2017) Handbok of induction heating

    Google Scholar 

  2. Şimşir C (2014) Modeling and simulation of steel heat treatment—prediction of microstructure. Distortion, Residual Stress, Crack ASM Handb 4B:409–466

    Google Scholar 

  3. Wrona E, Nacke B, Resetov D (2003) 3D-modelling of the transient eating process for induction surface hardening MEP-international scientific colloquium modelling for electromagnetic processing, pp 119–123

    Google Scholar 

  4. Choi JK, Park KS, Lee SS (2018) Prediction of high-frequency induction hardening depth of an AISI 1045 specimen by finite element analysis and experiments. Int J Precis Eng Manuf 19(12):1821–1827

    Google Scholar 

  5. Li H, He L, Gai K, Jiang R, Zhang C, Li M (2015) Numerical simulation and experimental investigation on the induction hardening of a ball screw. Mater Des 87:863–876

    Google Scholar 

  6. Hömberg D, Liu Q, Montalvo-Urquizo, Nadolski D, Petzold T, Schmidt A, Schulz A (2016) Simulation of multi-frequency induction hardening including phase transitions and mechanical effects Mater Des 121:86–100

    Google Scholar 

  7. Cajner D, Smoljan B, Landek D (2004) Computer simulation of induction hardening. J Mater Process Technol 157–158:55–60

    Google Scholar 

  8. Areitioaurtena M, Segurajauregi U, Urresti I, Fisk M, Ukar E (2020) Predicting the induction hardened case in 42CrMo4 cylinders. Procedia CIRP 87:545–550

    Google Scholar 

  9. Xia J, Jin H (2018) Numerical modelling of coupling thermal metallurgical transformation phenomena of structural steel in the welding process. Adv Eng Softw 115:66–74

    Google Scholar 

  10. Carlone P, Palazzo GS (2011) Development and validation of a thermomechanical finite element model of the steel quenching process including solid-solid phase changes. Int Appl Mech 46(8):995–971

    Google Scholar 

Download references


Ikerlan’s research has been supported by CDTI, depending by Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, through the “AYUDAS CERVERA PARA CENTROS TECNOLÓGICOS 2019” program, project MIRAGED with expedient number CER-20190001. This research center is certificated as CENTRO DE EXCELENCIA CERVERA.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to M. Areitioaurtena .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2023 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

About this paper

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this paper

Areitioaurtena, M., Segurajauregi, U., Hidalgo, R., Urresti, I., Ukar, E. (2023). A Numerical Study on Phase Transformation and Hardness Evolution During Scanning Induction Hardening. In: Conte, G., Sename, O. (eds) Proceedings of 10th International Conference on Mechatronics and Control Engineering . ICMCE 2021. Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering. Springer, Singapore.

Download citation

  • DOI:

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Singapore

  • Print ISBN: 978-981-19-1539-0

  • Online ISBN: 978-981-19-1540-6

  • eBook Packages: EngineeringEngineering (R0)

Publish with us

Policies and ethics