Skip to main content

Graphene as an Alternative Additive in Automotive Cooling System

  • 309 Accesses

Part of the Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering book series (LNME)


The project represents graphene can be used as an alternative additive in the automotive cooling system. Thus, graphene nanofluids have been prepared at 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5% volume concentrations. Afterward, measurement of various thermophysical properties of nanofluid such as thermal conductivity, density, viscosity, and specific has been done. The obtaining data has been analyzed and compared with graphene oxide, titanium oxide, aluminium oxide, silicon carbide, and copper oxide nanofluid to figure out the best nanofluid that can absorb more heat to protect the car engine from overheating. In, summary, the overall best nanofluid among these six would be graphene oxide, with the best thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity, and one of the lowest viscosities. As for comparison among graphene all volume concentrations, the 0.1% graphene nanofluid demonstrated the best with high thermal conductivity and low viscosity.


  • Graphene
  • Nanofluid
  • Radiator
  • Automotive cooling system
  • Comparison

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-981-19-1457-7_2
  • Chapter length: 23 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
USD   149.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-981-19-1457-7
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   199.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16
Fig. 17
Fig. 18
Fig. 19
Fig. 20
Fig. 21
Fig. 22
Fig. 23
Fig. 24
Fig. 25


  1. Orfila O, Saint Pierre G, Messias MJTRPCET (2015) An android based ecodriving assistance system to improve safety and efficiency of internal combustion engine passenger cars. Transp Res Part C: Emerg Technol 58:772–782

    Google Scholar 

  2. Prudhvi G et al (2013) Cooling systems in automobiles & cars, 2(4):688–695

    Google Scholar 

  3. Raut MS, Walke PJIJoES (2012) Thermoelectric air cooling for cars. Technology 4(5):2381–2394

    Google Scholar 

  4. Reich S et al (2002) Tight-binding description of graphene, 66(3):035412

    Google Scholar 

  5. Wei D, Liu Y (2010) Controllable synthesis of graphene and its applications. Adv Mater 22(30):3225–3241

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  6. Geim A (2009) Graphene: status and prospects AK Geim Manchester Centre for Mesoscience and Nanotechnology. University of Manchester. Oxford Road M13 9PL, Manchester, UK, Prospects

    Google Scholar 

  7. Geim AK, Novoselov KS (2010) The rise of graphene. Nanoscience and technology: a collection of reviews from nature journals. World Scientific, pp 11–19

    Google Scholar 

  8. Mahamude ASF et al (2021) Numerical studies of graphene hybrid nanofluids in flat plate solar collector. In: 2021 International Congress of Advanced Technology and Engineering (ICOTEN). IEEE

    Google Scholar 

  9. Hader GGJS (2020) Modelling, C.o.D. Materials, and t. Heterostructures. Synthesis of graphene, p 181

    Google Scholar 

  10. Teng C et al (2017) Ultrahigh conductive graphene paper based on ball-milling exfoliated graphene. Adv Func Mater 27(20):1700240

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  11. Singh K, Ohlan A, Dhawan SJ (2012) Polymer-graphene nanocomposites: preparation, characterization, properties, and applications. Nanocomposites-new trends developments, pp 37–72

    Google Scholar 

  12. Bhuyan MSA et al (2016) Synthesis of graphene. Int Nano Lett 6(2):65–83

    CrossRef  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  13. Rao C, Maitra U, Matte HRJGS (2012) Synthesis, characterization, and selected properties of graphene. Graphene: synthesis, properties, and phenomena, pp 1–47

    Google Scholar 

  14. Casiraghi C et al (2007) Rayleigh imaging of graphene and graphene layers. Nano Lett 7(9):2711–2717

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  15. Dzyazko YS, Volfkovich YM, Chaban MO (2021) Composites containing inorganic ion exchangers and graphene oxide: hydrophilic-hydrophobic and sorption properties. Nanomaterials and nanocomposites, nanostructure surfaces, and their applications. Springer, pp 93–110

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  16. Sharotri N et al (2021) Fundamental of graphene nanocomposites

    Google Scholar 

  17. Pinto RV, Fiorelli FASJATE (2016) Review of the mechanisms responsible for heat transfer enhancement using nanofluids. 108, pp 720–739

    Google Scholar 

  18. Mahamude ASF et al (2021) Thermal performance of nanomaterial in solar collector: state-of-play for graphene. J Energy Storage 42:103022

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  19. DiFrancesco ML et al (2020) A hybrid P3HT-graphene interface for efficient photostimulation of neurons. Carbon 162:308–317

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  20. Contreras EMC et al (2019) Experimental analysis of the thermohydraulic performance of graphene and silver nanofluids in automotive cooling systems, 132:375–387

    Google Scholar 

  21. Hosseini SM et al (2016) Performance of CNT-water nanofluid as coolant fluid in shell and tube intercooler of a LPG absorber tower. 102:45–53

    Google Scholar 

  22. Balandin AAJ (2011) Thermal properties of graphene and nanostructured carbon materials. Nat Mater 10(8):569–581

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  23. Yang Y et al (2019) Thermal conductivity of defective graphene oxide: a molecular dynamic study, 24(6):1103

    Google Scholar 

  24. Alofi A, Srivastava GJPRB (2013) Thermal conductivity of graphene and graphite, 87(11):115421

    Google Scholar 

  25. Leong K et al (2010) Performance investigation of an automotive car radiator operated with nanofluid-based coolants (nanofluid as a coolant in a radiator). 30(17–18):2685–2692

    Google Scholar 

  26. Vajjha RS, Das DK (2009) Experimental determination of thermal conductivity of three nanofluids and development of new correlations. Int J Heat Mass Transf 52(21):4675–4682

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  27. Ahmed SA et al (2018) Improving car radiator performance by using TiO2-water nanofluid. 21(5):996–1005

    Google Scholar 

  28. Selvam C et al (2017) Thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity of water–ethylene glycol mixture-based nanofluids with graphene nanoplatelets 129(2):947–955

    Google Scholar 

Download references


The authors are very thankful to University Malaysia Pahang for providing the financial assistance and laboratory facilities under grant no. RDU190323.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Kaniz Farhana .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2023 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

About this paper

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this paper

Kadirgama, G., Bin Razman, M.I., Ramasamy, D., Kadirgama, K., Farhana, K. (2023). Graphene as an Alternative Additive in Automotive Cooling System. In: Ismail, M.Y., Mohd Sani, M.S., Kumarasamy, S., Hamidi, M.A., Shaari, M.S. (eds) Technological Advancement in Mechanical and Automotive Engineering. ICMER 2021. Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering. Springer, Singapore.

Download citation

  • DOI:

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Singapore

  • Print ISBN: 978-981-19-1456-0

  • Online ISBN: 978-981-19-1457-7

  • eBook Packages: EngineeringEngineering (R0)