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On-Chip Generation of PAM-4 Signals Based on a 3 × 3 MMI Architecture for Optical Interconnect and Computing Systems

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Part of the Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering book series (LNEE,volume 878)


We propose a new structure for multilevel pulse amplitude modulation (PAM-4) signal generation for on-chip optical interconnects and data center networks. Our proposed architecture use only one 3 × 3 multimode interference (MMI) Based ring resonator with two segmented phase shifters. Two segmented phase shifters applied the plasma dispersion effect in silicon waveguide are used in the feedback ring resonator waveguide. The structure provides a very steep slope compared with the conventional structure based on Mach Zehnder Interferometer (MZM). As a result, an extreme reduction of power consumption is achieved. Based on this structure, an extreme high bandwidth and compact footprint are also achieved. The device is designed and analyzed using the Beam Propagation Method (BPM) integrated with the Finite Difference-Time Difference (FDTD) simulations.


  • Multimode interference (MMI)
  • Microring resonator
  • Integrated optics
  • PAM-4
  • High performance computing systems
  • Data center networks
  • Optical interconnects

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This research is funded by Vietnam National Foundation for Science and Technology Development (NAFOSTED) under grant number 103.03-2018.354.

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Correspondence to Trung Thanh Le .

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Le, D.T., Le, T.T. (2022). On-Chip Generation of PAM-4 Signals Based on a 3 × 3 MMI Architecture for Optical Interconnect and Computing Systems. In: Liang, Q., Wang, W., Liu, X., Na, Z., Zhang, B. (eds) Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems. CSPS 2021. Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering, vol 878. Springer, Singapore.

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  • Publisher Name: Springer, Singapore

  • Print ISBN: 978-981-19-0389-2

  • Online ISBN: 978-981-19-0390-8

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