Skip to main content

Imaging of Delamination in Concrete Slab Using Impact Echo

  • 92 Accesses

Part of the Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering book series (LNME)


Delamination is a common defect that affects the durability and performance of reinforced concrete structures. Major causes of delamination in concrete are rebar corrosion, moisture ingression, damage due to reversal of loading etc. Impact echo is a relatively simple non-destructive method that works based on propagation of stress waves at the impact point of specimen surface to other locations. The recorded signals represented as a waveform in voltage and its corresponding fast Fourier transform in amplitude spectrum essentially carries qualitative and quantitative information about the flaw. This paper investigates the ability of impact echo to image and quantify predefined flaws of different acoustic impedance and estimate their physical dimensions. Impact response were recorded for six apertures intersecting the defect locations at a fine interval of 10 mm. The echogram or B-scan images of signal waveform showed the relative acoustic impedance of the flaws based on the intensity of wave reverberations exhibited during the scans. Furthermore, B-scan images of the fast Fourier transform provided the quantification of the flaws viz. dimensions or depth. Steel rebars could not be detected in any of the B-scan images. The findings reported in this study can be implemented in qualitative and quantitative investigation of delamination in concrete structures.


  • Impact echo
  • B-scan
  • Delamination
  • Acoustic impedance
  • Time-domain
  • Frequency-domain

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-981-16-9093-8_16
  • Chapter length: 16 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
USD   129.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-981-16-9093-8
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   169.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6


  1. Sansalone M, Carino NJ (1986) Impact-echo: a method for flaw detection in concrete using transient stress waves. National Technical Reports Library—NTIS

    Google Scholar 

  2. Carino NJ, Sansalone M (1990) Flaw detection in concrete using the impact-echo method. In: Bridge evaluation, repair and rehabilitation, Springer Netherlands, pp 101–118.

  3. Cheng C, Sansalone M (1993) The impact-echo response of concrete plates containing delaminations: numerical, experimental and field studies. Mater Struct 26:274–285.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  4. Wouters J, Poston RW (2001) Applications of impact-echo for flaw detection. In: Structures 2001, American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA, pp 1–10.

  5. Yeh PL, Liu PL (2008) Application of the wavelet transform and the enhanced Fourier spectrum in the impact echo test. NDT and E Int 41:382–394.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  6. Hsiao C, Cheng CC, Liou T, Juang Y (2008) Detecting flaws in concrete blocks using the impact-echo method. NDT and E Int 41:98–107.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  7. Sadri A (2003) Application of impact-echo technique in diagnoses and repair of stone masonry structures. In: NDT and E international. Elsevier, pp 195–202.

  8. Chaudhary MTA (2013) Effectiveness of impact echo testing in detecting flaws in prestressed concrete slabs. Constr Build Mater 47:753–759.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  9. Scherr JF, Grosse CU (2020) Delamination detection on a concrete bridge deck using impact echo scanning. Struct Concrete.

  10. Algernon D, Ernst H, Dressler K (2012) Signal processing for air-coupled impact-echo using microphone arrays. In: 18th world conference on nondestrutive testing, Durban, South Africa,

    Google Scholar 

  11. Sun Y, Huang P, Su J, Wang T (2018) Depth estimation of surface-opening crack in concrete beams using impact-echo and non-contact video-based methods. Eurasip J Image Video Process 2018:1–10.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  12. Te Liang M, Su PJ (2001) Detection of the corrosion damage of rebar in concrete using impact-echo method. Cem Concr Res 31:1427–1436.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  13. Kee S-H, Gucunski N (2016) Interpretation of flexural vibration modes from impact-echo testing. J Infrastruct Syst 22:04016009.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  14. Zhu J, Popovics JS (2007) Imaging concrete structures using air-coupled impact-echo. J Eng Mech 133:628–640.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  15. Ghomi MT, Mahmoudi J, Darabi M (2013) Concrete plate thickness measurement using the indirect impact-echo method. Nondestruct Testing Evaluat 28:119–144.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  16. Carino NJ (2001) The impact-echo method: an overview. In: Structures 2001, American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA, pp 1–18.

  17. Kee S-H, Oh T, Popovics JS, Arndt RW, Zhu J (2012) Nondestructive bridge deck testing with air-coupled impact-echo and infrared thermography. J Bridg Eng 17:928–939.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  18. Krautkrämer J, Krautkrämer H (1983) Ultrasonic testing of materials. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg.

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2022 Indian Society for Non-destructive Testing

About this paper

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this paper

Yumnam, M., Gupta, H., Ghosh, D. (2022). Imaging of Delamination in Concrete Slab Using Impact Echo. In: Mandayam, S., Sagar, S.P. (eds) Advances in Non Destructive Evaluation. NDE 2020. Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering. Springer, Singapore.

Download citation

  • DOI:

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Singapore

  • Print ISBN: 978-981-16-9092-1

  • Online ISBN: 978-981-16-9093-8

  • eBook Packages: EngineeringEngineering (R0)