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Vocational Education and Training in Myanmar

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International Handbook on Education in South East Asia

Part of the book series: Springer International Handbooks of Education ((SIHE))

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Myanmar benefitted from a decade of reform to technical and vocational education and training (TVET) between 2011 and 2021. Before that, decades of military rule had resulted in a stagnant economy, with industries mostly rural-based and low-skilled. TVET teachers remained isolated from global trends in educational practice, and programs lacked industry relevance. In 2011, the restoration of civilian government presented an opportunity for change. The nation embarked optimistically on an ambitious political, social, and economic renewal process. Nowhere was this new optimism more palpable than in the TVET sector. The Ministry of Education developed a forward-looking TVET chapter in the National Education Strategic Plan 2016–2021. It focused on rebuilding, retooling, reskilling, and expanding. While the sector continued to be constrained by policy and implementation challenges, it made significant progress and was starting to show immense promise. Then came the COVID pandemic in 2020 and a military coup early in 2021. The future direction of the sector became unexpectedly uncertain. This chapter addresses various sector attributes concerning access, student assessment, curriculum, quality, inclusion and equity, digitalization and innovation, training and professional development, and industry and market engagement. The chapter concludes with an account of trends in the sector and key challenges faced in an uncertain future.

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Correspondence to Karina Veal .

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Veal, K. (2023). Vocational Education and Training in Myanmar. In: Symaco, L.P., Hayden, M. (eds) International Handbook on Education in South East Asia. Springer International Handbooks of Education. Springer, Singapore.

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