Skip to main content

DEX (Decision EXpert): A Qualitative Hierarchical Multi-criteria Method

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Multiple Criteria Decision Making

Part of the book series: Studies in Systems, Decision and Control ((SSDC,volume 407))


DEX (Decision EXpert) is a hierarchical, qualitative, rule-based, multi-criteria decision modeling method. It combines multi criteria decision analysis with artificial intelligence and is particularly suited for sorting/classification decision problems. DEX puts special attention on the transparency, comprehensibility, consistency, and completeness of decision models, as well as on methods for the analysis, justification, and explanation of decisions. The approach relies on using software tools that actively support the decision maker in both the creation and utilization stages of the process. Since its inception in the 1980s, DEX has been successfully applied in hundreds of real-world decision projects in various areas, including economy, ecology, agronomy, medicine, and health care. In the last decade, there is an increasing trend of including DEX models in decision support systems. In this chapter, DEX is described from the theoretical and practical viewpoint and further explained in terms of motivation, history, software, applications, and method extensions. The presentation is supported by three examples: a didactic example of employee selection and two real-world industrial applications of choosing a raw-material location and assessing electric energy production technologies, respectively.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
USD 139.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 179.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 179.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions


  1. 1.

    Actually, DEX implementations distinguish between increasing, decreasing and unordered scales. Here, we simplify the definition without loss of generality.


\(\mathcal{A}=\{{A}_{1},{A}_{2},\dots ,{A}_{q}\}\) :


\({A}_{i}\in \mathcal{A}, {A}_{i}=\{{a}_{x,i }\in {E}_{x}, \forall x\in X\}\) :

An alternative

\({a}_{x,i}\in {A}_{i}\) :

Value of \({A}_{i}\) assigned to attribute \(x\)

\({B}_{x}\subset {D}_{x}\) :

Subset of bad values of attribute \(x\)

\({C}_{y}={\prod }_{x\in S(y)}{D}_{x}\) :

Domain of \({f}_{y}\)

\({D}_{x}\) :

Value scale of attribute \(x\)

\({E}_{x}\) :

Range of values that can be assigned to attribute \(x\)

\({E}_{y}\) :

Range of \({f}_{y}\)

\(e=(\mathbf{x},y)\in {T}_{y}\) :

Elementary decision rule, an entry in \({T}_{y}\)

\(F\) :

Set of aggregation functions of a DEX model

\({\mathcal{F}}_{y}\) :

Fuzzy distributions over \({D}_{y}\)

\({f}_{y}: {C}_{y}\to {E}_{y}\) :

Aggregation function associated with attribute \(y\)

\({g}_{y}\) :

An approximation of \({f}_{y}\)

\({G}_{x}\subset {D}_{x}\) :

Subset of good values of attribute \(x\)

\({I}_{i}\subset {A}_{i}\) :

Subset of values of \({A}_{i}\), assigned to input attributes

\({I}_{y}\) :

Set of intervals over \({D}_{y}\)

\({m}_{x}=|{D}_{x}|\) :

Number of categories of scale \({D}_{x}\)

\(M=(X,D,S,F)\) :

A DEX model

\({N}_{x}\subset {D}_{x}\) :

Subset of neutral values of attribute \(x\)

\({O}_{i}\subset {A}_{i}\) :

Subset of values of \({A}_{i}\), assigned to output (aggregate) attributes

\({\mathrm{ord}(v}_{x,i})=i\) :

Ordinal value of \({v}_{x,i}\)

\(P(x)\) :

Set of parents of attribute \(x\)

\({\mathcal{P}}_{y}\) :

Probability distributions over \({D}_{y}\)

\({r}_{y}=|{C}_{y}|\) :

Size of \({C}_{y}\) and the corresponding \({T}_{y}\)

\(S:X\to {2}^{x}\) :

Descendant function

\(S(x)\) :

Set of descendants of attribute \(x\)

\({\mathcal{S}}_{y}\) :

The power set of \({D}_{y}\)

\({T}_{y}=\{(\mathbf{x},y), \mathbf{x}\in {C}_{y},y\in {E}_{y}\}\) :

Decision table associated with attribute \(y\)

\({v}_{x,i}\in {D}_{x}\) :

\(i\)-th qualitative value (category) of attribute \(x\)

\({v}_{x,i}{\preccurlyeq v}_{x,j}\) :

Weak preference relation

\(w, {w}_{i}\in \mathcal{R}\) :

Relative weight (importance) of an attribute

\(x, {x}_{i},y\in X\) :

An attribute

\(X=\left\{{x}_{1},{x}_{2},\dots ,{x}_{n}\right\}\) :

Set of attributes

\(\omega \in [-0.5, +0.5]\) :

An offset to qualitative value \(v\)




Analytic Hierarchy Process, an MCDM method


Algorithm Quasi-optimal, a machine rule learning algorithm


Consistency-Driven Pairwise Comparisons, an MCDM method


DECision MAKing, an early predecessor of DEX


Decision EXpert, a qualitative MCDM method


Software implementing the DEX method


Dominance-based Rough Set Analysis, an MCDM approach


Decision Support System


ELimination Et Choix Traduisant la REalité (ELimination Et Choice Translating REality), a family of MCDM methods


Hierarchical INduction Tool, a machine-learning method for developing DEX models from data


Measuring Attractiveness by a Categorical Based Evaluation Technique, an MCDM method


Multi-Criteria Decision Modeling


Multi-Criteria Hierarchy Process, a hierarchical MCDM approach


Qualitative-Quantitative, an approach to ranking of alternatives using a DEX model


  1. Alić, I., Siering, M., Bohanec, M.: Hot stock or not? A qualitative multi-attribute model to detect financial market manipulation. In: Wigland, D.L. (Ed.) eInnovation: Challenges and Impacts for Individuals, Organizations and Society, Proceedings of 26th Bled eConference Bled, Slovenia, Kranj: Moderna organizacija, 64–77 (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  2. Bana e Costa, C., De Corte, J.-M., Vansnick, J.-C.: MACBETH (Overview of MACBETH multicriteria decision analysis approach). Int. J. Inf. Technol. Decis. Mak. 11, 359–387 (2003)

    Google Scholar 

  3. Belton, V., Stewart, T.J.: Multi Criteria Decision Analysis: An Integrated Approach. Springer, US (2002)

    Google Scholar 

  4. Bergez, J.-E.: Using a genetic algorithm to define worst-best and best-worst options of a DEXi-type model: Application to the MASC model of cropping-system sustainability. Comput. Electron. Agric. 90, 93–98 (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  5. Bohanec, M., Bratko, I., Rajkovič, V. (1983): An expert system for decision making. In: Sol, H.G. (Ed.) Processes and Tools for Decision Support, pp. 235–248, North-Holland.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Bohanec, M., Rajkovič, V. (1988): Knowledge acquisition and explanation for multi-attribute decision making. In: Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop Expert Systems and Their Applications AVIGNON 88, vol. 1, pp. 59–78, Avignon, 1988 (also available from

  7. Bohanec, M., Rajkovič, V.: DEX: an expert system shell for decision support. Sistemica 1(1), 145–157 (1990)

    Google Scholar 

  8. Bohanec, M., Urh, B., Rajkovič, V.: Evaluating options by combined qualitative and quantitative methods. Acta Physiol. (Oxf) 80, 67–89 (1992)

    Google Scholar 

  9. Bohanec, M., Kontić, B., Kos, D., Marušič, J., Polič, S., Rakovec, J., Sedej, B., et al. (1993): Comparison of clay-pit locations Okroglica, Bukovnik, Marjetnica with respect to environmental protection (in Slovene language). Ljubljana: Jožef Stefan Institute, Report DP-6742.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Bohanec, M., Rajkovič, V., Semolič, B., Pogačnik, A.: Knowledge-based portfolio analysis for project evaluation. Inf. Manag. 28, 293–302 (1995)

    Google Scholar 

  11. Bohanec, M., Cestnik, B., Rajkovič, V.: Evaluation models for housing loan allocation in the context of floats. In: Berkeley, D., Widmeyer, G.R., Brezillon, P., Rajkovič, V. (eds.) Context Sensitive Decision Support Systems, pp. 174–189. Chapman & Hall, London (1998)

    Google Scholar 

  12. Bohanec, M., Rajkovič, V.: Multi-attribute decision modeling: industrial applications of DEX. Informatica 23, 487–491 (1999)

    Google Scholar 

  13. Bohanec, M., Zupan, B., Rajkovič, V.: Applications of qualitative multi-attribute decision models in health care. Int. J. Med. Inf. 58–59, 191–205 (2000)

    Google Scholar 

  14. Bohanec, M., Rajkovič, V., Leskošek, B., Kapus, V.: Expert knowledge management for sports talent identification and advising process. In: Carlsson, S.A., Brezillon, P., Humphreys, P., Lundberg, B.G., McCosh, A.M., Rajkovič, V. (eds.) Decision Support through Knowledge Management, pp. 46–59 (2000)

    Google Scholar 

  15. Bohanec, M., Zupan, B.: (2004): A function-decomposition method for development of hierarchical multi-attribute decision models. Decis. Support Syst. 36, 215–233 (2004)

    Google Scholar 

  16. Bohanec, M., Messéan, A., Angevin, F., Žnidaršič, M.: SMAC advisor: a decision-support tool on coexistence of genetically-modified and conventional maize. In: Proceedings of Information Society IS 2006, Ljubljana, 9–12 (2006)

    Google Scholar 

  17. Bohanec, M., Cortet, J., Griffiths, B., Žnidaršič, M., Debeljak, M., Caul, S., Thompson, J., Krogh, P.H.: A qualitative multi-attribute model for assessing the impact of cropping systems on soil quality. Pedobiologia 51, 239–250 (2007)

    Google Scholar 

  18. Bohanec, M., Messéan, A., Scatasta, S., Angevin, F., Griffiths, B., Krogh, P.H.: A qualitative multi-attribute model for economic and ecological assessment of genetically modified crops. Ecol. Model. 215, 247–261 (2008)

    Google Scholar 

  19. Bohanec, M., Rajkovič, V., Bratko, I., Zupan, B., Žnidaršič, M.: DEX methodology: three decades of qualitative multi-attribute modelling. Informatica 37, 49–54 (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  20. Bohanec, M., Aprile, G., Costante, M., Foti, M., Trdin, N.: A hierarchical multi-attribute model for bank reputational risk assessment. In: Phillips-Wren, G., Carlsson, S., Respício, A., Brézillon, P. (eds.) DSS 2.0 -- Supporting Decision Making with New Technologies. Amsterdam: IOS Press. ISBN 978–1–61499–398–8, 92–103 (2014).

    Google Scholar 

  21. Bohanec, M., Delibašić, B.: Data-mining and expert models for predicting injury risk in ski resorts. In: Decision Support Systems V - Big Data Analytics for Decision Making. First International Conference ICDSST 2015, pp. 46–60. Springer (2015)

    Google Scholar 

  22. Bohanec, M.: Multi-criteria DEX models (2017): an overview and analysis. In: Zadnik Stirn, L., et al. (eds.) SOR-2017: 14th International Symposium on Operational Research in Slovenia, Bled, Slovenia, September 27–29, 2017, pp. 155–160. Slovenian Society Informatika, Section for Operational Research, Ljubljana

    Google Scholar 

  23. Bohanec, M., Trdin, N., Kontić, B.: A qualitative multi-criteria modelling approach to the assessment of electric energy production technologies in Slovenia. CEJOR 25, 611–625 (2017)

    MathSciNet  MATH  Google Scholar 

  24. Bohanec, M., Mileva Boshkoska, B., Prins, T.W., Kok, E.J.: SIGMO: a decision support system for identification of genetically modified food or feed products. Food Control 71, 168–177 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  25. Bohanec, M., Tartarisco, G., Marino, F., Pioggia, G., Puddu, P.E., Schiariti, M.S., Baert, A., Pardaens, S., Clays, E., Vodopija, A., Luštrek, M.: HeartMan DSS: A decision support system for self-management of congestive heart failure. Expert Syst. Appl. 186, 115688 (2021).

  26. Bohanec, M., Miljković, D., Valmarska, A., Mileva Boshkoska, B., Gasparoli, E., Gentile, G., Koutsikos, K., Marcante, A., Antonini, A., Gatsios, D., Rigas, F., Fotiadis, D.I., Tsiouris, K.M., Konitsiotis, S.: A decision support system for Parkinson disease management: Expert models for suggesting medication change. J. Decis. Syst. 27, 164–172 (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  27. Bohanec, M.: DEXi: program for multi-attribute decision making, user's manual, version 5.04. IJS Report DP-13100, Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (available from (2020)

  28. Brelih, M., Rajkovič, U., Ružič, T., Rodič, B., Kozelj, D.: Modelling decision knowledge for the evaluation of water management investment projects. CEJOR 27, 759–781 (2019)

    MathSciNet  MATH  Google Scholar 

  29. Carpani, M., Bergez, J.-E., Monod, H.: Sensitivity analysis of a hierarchical qualitative model for sustainability assessment of cropping systems. Environ. Model. Softw. 27–28, 15–22 (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  30. Chandra, V.: Artifical intelligence and machine learning. PHI Learning (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  31. Chen, S., Liu, J., Wang, H., Xu, Y., Augusto, J.C.: A linguistic multi-criteria decision making approach based on logical reasoning. Inf. Sci. 258, 266–276 (2014)

    MathSciNet  MATH  Google Scholar 

  32. Chopin, P., Tiroilien, J., Blazy, J.-M.: Ex-ante sustainability assessment of cleaner banana production systems. J. Clean. Prod. 139, 15–24 (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  33. Colomb, B., Carof, M., Aveline, A., Bergez, J.-E.: Stockless organic farming: strengths and weaknesses evidenced by a multicriteria sustainability assessment model. Agron. Sustain. Dev. 33, 593–608 (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  34. Corrente, S., Greco, S., Słowiński, R.: Multiple criteria hierarchy process in robust ordinal regression. Decis. Support Syst. 53(3), 660–674 (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  35. Craheix, D., Bergez, J.-E., Angevin, F., Bockstaller, C., Bohanec, M., Colomb, B., Doré, T., Fortino, G., Guichard, L., Pelzer, E., Méssean, A., Reau, R., Sadok, W.: Guidelines to design models assessing agricultural sustainability, based upon feedbacks from the DEXi decision support system. Agron. Sustain. Dev. 35, 1431–1447 (2015)

    Google Scholar 

  36. Craheix, D., Angevin, F., Doré, T., de Tourdonnet, S.: Using a multicriteria assessment model to evaluate the sustainability of conservation agriculture at the cropping system level in France. Eur. J. Agron. 767, 75–86 (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  37. Debeljak, M., Trajanov, A., Kuzmanovski, V., Schröder, J., Sandén, T., Spiegel, H., Wall, D.P., Van de Broek, M., Rutgers, M., Bampa, F., Creamer, R.E., Henriksen, C.B.: A field-scale decision support system for assessment and management of soil functions. Front. Environ. Sci. 7(115), 1–14 (2019)

    Google Scholar 

  38. Deguine, J.-P., Robin, M.-H., Corrales, D.C., Vedy-Zecchini, M.-A., Doizy, A., Chiroleu, F., Quesnel, G., Païtard, I., Bohanec, M., Aubertot, J.-N.: Qualitative modeling of fruit fly injuries on chayote in Réunion : development and transfer to users. Crop Prot. 129 (2021). ISSN: 105367-1-105367–11

    Google Scholar 

  39. Doumpos, M., Zopounidis, C.: Multicriteria Decision Aid Classification Methods. Springer, US (2002)

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  40. Efstathiou, J., Rajkovič, V.: Multiattribute decisionmaking using a fuzzy heuristic approach. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, SMC-9, 326–333 (1979)

    Google Scholar 

  41. Erdogan, G., Refsdal, A., Nygård, B., Petter Rosland, O., Kvam Randeberg, B.: Risk-based decision support model for offshore installations. Bus. Syst. Res. 9(2), 55–68 (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  42. García-Lapresta, J.L., del Pozo, R.G.: An ordinal multi-criteria decision-making procedure under imprecise linguistic assessments. Eur. J. Oper. Res. 279(1), 159–167 (2019)

    MathSciNet  MATH  Google Scholar 

  43. Greco, S., Matarazzo, B., Słowiński, R.: Rough sets methodology for sorting problems in presence of multiple attributes and criteria. Eur. J. Oper. Res. 138(2), 247–259 (2002)

    MathSciNet  MATH  Google Scholar 

  44. Greco, S., Matarazzo, B., Słowiński, R.: Dominance-based rough set approach to decision under uncertainty and time preference. Ann. Oper. Res. 176(1), 41–75 (2010)

    MathSciNet  MATH  Google Scholar 

  45. Greco, S., Ehrgott, M., Figueira, J.: Multi Criteria Decision Analysis: State of the art Surveys. Springer, New York (2016)

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  46. Hajnić, M., Mileva Boshkoska, B.: A decision support model for the operational management of employee redeployment in large governmental organisations. J. Decis. Syst. (2020).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Hawes, C., Young, M.W., Banks, G., Begg, G.S., Christie, A., Iannetta, P.P.M., Karley, A.J., Squire, G.R.: Whole-systems analysis of environmental and economic sustainability in arable cropping systems: a case study. Agronomy 9, 438 (2019)

    Google Scholar 

  48. Iocola, I., Campanelli, G., Diacono, M., Leteo, F., Montemurro, F., Persiani, A., Canali, S.: Sustainability assessment of organic vegetable production using a qualitative multi-attribute model. Sustainability 10(10), 3820 (2018).

  49. Ishizaka, A., Nemery, P.: Multi-criteria Decision Analysis: Methods and Software. Wiley, Chichester (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  50. Jackson, P.: Introduction to Expert Systems, 2nd edn. Addison-Wesley (1990)

    Google Scholar 

  51. Kikaj, A., Bohanec, M.: Complex decision rules in DEX methodology: jRule algorithm and performance analysis. In: Proceedings of the 21th International Conference Information Society IS 2018, Volume A, Ljubljana: Jožef Stefan Institute, 17–20 (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  52. Kikaj, A., Bohanec, M.: DEX2Web—A web-based software implementing the multiple-criteria decision-making method DEX. In: Jayawickrama, U., Delias, P., Escobar, M.T., Papathanasiou, J. (eds.) Decision Support Systems XI: Decision Support Systems, Analytics and Technologies in Response to Global Crisis Management, pp. 30–43 (2021).

  53. Kotsiantis, S.B., Zaharakis, I.D., Pintelas, P.E.: Machine learning: a review of classification and combining techniques. Artif. Intell. Rev. 26, 159–190 (2007)

    Google Scholar 

  54. Maksimović, A., Grgić, Z., Puška, A., Šakić Bobić, B., Ćejvanović, F.: Application of multi-criteria decision making for the selection of apple varieties for the Northwestern region of B&H. J. Central Eur. Agric. 19(3), 740–759 (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  55. Montemurro, F., Persiani, A., Diacono, M.: Environmental sustainability assessment of horticultural systems: a multi-criteria evaluation approach applied in a case study in mediterranean conditions. Agronomy 8, 98 (2018).

  56. Kontić, B., Bohanec, M., Kontić, D., Trdin, N., Matko, M.: Improving appraisal of sustainability of energy options - A view from Slovenia. Energy Policy 90, 154–171 (2016)

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  57. Leben, A., Kunstelj, M., Bohanec, M., Vintar, M.: Evaluating public administration e-portals. Inf. Polity 11(3/4), 207–225 (2006)

    Google Scholar 

  58. MacSweeney Brugha, C.: Structure of multi-criteria decision-making. J. Oper. Res. Soc. 55(11), 1156–1168 (2004)

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  59. Michalski, R.S., Larson, J.: Incremental generation of VLL hypotheses: the underlying methodology and the description of program AQ11. Report ISG 83–5, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (1983)

    Google Scholar 

  60. Mileva Boshkoska, B., Bohanec, M.: A method for ranking non-linear qualitative decision preferences using copulas. Int. J. Decis. Support Syst. Technol. 4(2), 42–58 (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  61. Mileva Boshkoska, B., Liu, S., Chen, H.: Towards a knowledge management framework for crossing knowledge boundaries in agricultural value chain. J. Decis. Syst. 27, 88–97 (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  62. Mileva Boshkoska, B., Liu, S., Zhao, G., Fernandez, A., Gamboa, S., del Pino, M., Zarate, P., Hernandez, J., Chen, H.: A decision support system for evaluation of the knowledge sharing crossing boundaries in agri-food value chains. Comput. Ind. 110, 64–80 (2019)

    Google Scholar 

  63. Mileva Boshkoska, B., Miljković, D., Valmarska, A., Gatsios, D., Rigas, G., Konitsiotis, S., Tsiouris, K.M., Fotiadis, D., Bohanec, M.: Decision support for medication change of Parkinson's disease patients. In: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, vol. 196, November 2020, 105552 (2020)

    Google Scholar 

  64. Mitchell, T.M.: Machine Learning. McGraw-Hill (1997)

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  65. Moshkovich, H.M., Mechitov, A.I.: Verbal decision analysis: foundations and trends. Adv. Decis. Sci. 2013, 1–9 (2013)

    MathSciNet  MATH  Google Scholar 

  66. Mouron, P., Heijne, B., Naef, A., Strassemeyer, J., Hayer, F., Avilla, J., Alaphilippe, A., Höhn, H., Hernandez, J., Mack, G., Gaillard, G., Solé, J., Sauphanor, B., Patocchi, A., Samietz, J., Bravin, E., Lavigne, C., Bohanec, M., Golla, B., Scheer, C., Aubert, U., Bigler, F.: Sustainability assessment of crop protection systems: sustainos methodology and its application for apple orchards. Agric. Syst. 113, 1–15 (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  67. Nikoloski, T., Udovč, A., Pavlovič, M., Rajkovič, U.: Multi-criteria assessment model for farm reorientation. J. Decis. Syst. 27, 79–87 (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  68. Ohunakin, O.S., Saracoglu, B.O.: A comparative study of selected multi-criteria decision-making methodologies for location selection of very large concentrated solar power plants in Nigeria. Afr. J. Sci. Technol. Innov. Dev. 10(5), 551–567 (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  69. Olave, M., Rajkovič, V., Bohanec, M.: An application for admission in public school systems. In: Snellen, I.Th.M., van de Donk, W.B.H.J., Baquiast, J.-P. (eds.) Expert systems in public administration, Elsevier, pp. 145–160 (1989)

    Google Scholar 

  70. Omerčević, D., Zupančič, M., Bohanec, M., Kastelic, T.: Intelligent response to highway traffic situations and road incidents. In: Proceedings of TRA 2008, 21–24 April 2008, Ljubljana, pp. 1–6 (2008)

    Google Scholar 

  71. Pelzer, E., Fortino, G., Bockstaller, C., Angevin, F., Lamine, C., Moonen, C., Vasileiadis, V., Guérin, D., Guichard, L., Reau, R., Messéan, A.: Assessing innovative cropping systems with DEXiPM, a qualitative multi-criteria assessment tool derived from DEXi. Ecol. Ind. 18, 171–182 (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  72. Power, D.J.: Decision Support, Analytics, and Business Intelligence, 2nd edn. Business Expert Press, New York (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  73. Puppe, F.: Systematic Introduction to Expert Systems: Knowledge Representations and Problem-Solving Methods. Springer, Berlin (1993)

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  74. Prevolšek, B., Maksimović, A., Puška, A., Pažek, K., Žibert, M., Rozman, Č.: Sustainable development of ethno-villages in Bosnia and Herzegovina—a multi criteria assessment. Sustainability 12, 1399 (2020).

  75. Prišenk, J., Rozman, Č., Pažek, K., Turk, J., Bohak, Z., Borec, A.: A multi-criteria assessment of the production and marketing systems of local mountain food. Renew. Agric. Food Syst. 1–10 (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  76. Rajkovič, V., Bohanec, M. (1980): A cybernetic model of the computer aided decision making. In: Proceeding of 9th Internatioal Congress on Cybernetics, pp. 185–199, Namur

    Google Scholar 

  77. Rajkovič, V., Bohanec, M., Batagelj, V.: Knowledge engineering techniques for utility identification. Acta Physiol. (Oxf) 683(1–3), 271–286 (1988)

    Google Scholar 

  78. Ravier, C., Prost, L., Jeuffroy, M.-H., Wezel, A., Paravano, L., Reau, R.: Multi-criteria and multi-stakeholder assessment of cropping systems for a result-oriented water quality preservation action programme. Land Use Policy 42, 131–140 (2015)

    Google Scholar 

  79. Ravnikar, T., Bohanec, M., Muri, G.: Monitoring and assessment of anthropogenic activities in mountain lakes: A case of the Fifth Triglav Lake in the Julian Alps. Environ. Monit. Assess. 188(4), 1–17 (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  80. Rezaei, M.E., Barmaki, M., Veisi, H.: Sustainability assessment of potato fields using the DEXi decision support system in Hamadan Province, Iran. J. Integr. Agric. 17(11), 2583–2595 (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  81. Ricci, B., Messéan, A., Lelièvre, A., Colénod, F.-C., Angevin, F.: Improving the management of coexistence between GM and non-GM maize with a spatially explicit model of cross-pollination. Eur. J. Agron. 77, 90–100 (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  82. Roy, B.: Paradigms and challenges. In: Greco, S., Ehrgott, M., Figueira, J. (eds.) Multi Criteria Decision Analysis: State of the Art Surveys. Springer, New York (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  83. Rozman, Č, Grgić, Z., Maksimović, A., Ćejvanović, F., Puška, A., Šakič Bobić, B.: Multiple-criteria approach of evaluation of milk farm models in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Mljekarstvo 66(3), 206–214 (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  84. Rozman, Č, Maksimović, A., Puška, A., Grgić, Z., Pažek, K., Prevolšek, B., Ćejvanović, F.: The use of multi criteria models for decision support system in fruit production. Erwerbs-obstbau 59, 235–243 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  85. Saaty, T.L., Vargas, L.G.: Models, Methods, Concepts & Applications of the Analytic Hierarchy Process. Springer, US, New York (2012)

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  86. Sammut, C.: Concept learning. In: Sammut, C., Webb, G.I. (eds.) Encyclopedia of Machine Learning. Springer, Boston, MA (2010).

  87. Saracoglu, B.: A qualitative multi-attribute model for the selection of the private hydropower plant investments in Turkey. J. Ind. Eng. Manag. 9(1), 152–178 (2016)

    MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  88. Stubelj Ars, M., Bohanec, M.: Towards the ecotourism: a decision support model for the assessment of sustainability of mountain huts in the Alps. J. Environ. Manag. 91(12), 2554–2564 (2010)

    Google Scholar 

  89. Taškova, K., Stojanova, D., Bohanec, M., Džeroski, S.: A qualitative decision-support model for evaluating researchers. Informatica 31(4), 479–486 (2007)

    Google Scholar 

  90. Trdin, N., Bohanec, M.: Extending the multi-criteria decision making method DEX with numeric attributes, value distributions and relational models. CEJOR 26, 1–41 (2018)

    MathSciNet  MATH  Google Scholar 

  91. Tsiouris, K.M., Gatsios, D., Rigas, G., Miljković, D., Koroušić-Seljak, B., Bohanec, M., Arredondo, M.T., Antonini, A., Konitsiotis, S., Koutsouris, D.D., Fotiadis, D.I.: PD_manager: an mHealth platform for Parkinson’s disease patient management. Healthc. Technol. Lett. 4(3), 102–108 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  92. Wohlfender-Bühler, D., Feusthuber, E., Wäger, R., Mann, S., Aubry, S.J.: Genetically modified crops in Switzerland: implications for agrosystem sustainability evidenced by multi-criteria model. Agron. Sustain. Dev. 36, 33 (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  93. Zadeh, L.A., Klir, G.J., Yuan, B. (eds.) Fuzzy Sets, Fuzzy Logic, and Fuzzy Systems: Selected Papers by Lotfi A Zadeh. WSPC (1996)

    Google Scholar 

  94. Zimmermann, H.-J.: Fuzzy Sets, Decision Making, and Expert Systems, 4th edn.International Series in Management Science Operations Research, vol. 10. Springer, Netherlands (2001)

    Google Scholar 

  95. Zupan, B., Bohanec, M., Demšar, J., Bratko, I.: Learning by discovering concept hierarchies. Artif. Intell. 109, 211–242 (1999)

    MathSciNet  MATH  Google Scholar 

  96. Žnidaršič, M., Bohanec, M., Zupan, B.: proDEX–A DSS tool for environmental decision-making. Environ. Model. Softw. 21(10), 1514–1516 (2006)

    Google Scholar 

  97. Žnidaršič, M., Bohanec, M.: Automatic revision of qualitative multi-attribute decision models. Found. Comput. Decis. Sci. 32(4), 315–326 (2007)

    Google Scholar 

  98. Žnidaršič, M., Bohanec, M., Zupan, B.: Modelling impacts of cropping systems: demands and solutions for DEX methodology. Eur. J. Oper. Res. 189, 594–608 (2008)

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  99. Žnidaršič, M., Bohanec, M., Lavrač, N., Cestnik, B.: Project self-evaluation methodology: the healthreats project case study. In: Proceedings of Information Society 2009, Ljubljana, pp. 85–88 (2009)

    Google Scholar 

  100. Žnidaršič, M., Bohanec, M., Trdin, N.: Qualitative assessment of data-mining workflows. In: Respício, A., Burstein, F. (eds.) Fusing Decision Support Systems into the Fabric of the Context, pp. 75–88. IOS Press, Amsterdam (2012)

    Google Scholar 

Download references


The author acknowledges the financial support from the Slovenian Research Agency, research core funding P2-0103.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Marko Bohanec .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2022 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

About this chapter

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Bohanec, M. (2022). DEX (Decision EXpert): A Qualitative Hierarchical Multi-criteria Method. In: Kulkarni, A.J. (eds) Multiple Criteria Decision Making. Studies in Systems, Decision and Control, vol 407. Springer, Singapore.

Download citation

  • DOI:

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Singapore

  • Print ISBN: 978-981-16-7413-6

  • Online ISBN: 978-981-16-7414-3

  • eBook Packages: EngineeringEngineering (R0)

Publish with us

Policies and ethics