Skip to main content

The Significance of Ancient Water Systems and the Sacred Groves in the Landscape of Badami, Karnataka: A Geospatial Study

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Blue-Green Infrastructure Across Asian Countries

Abstract

Modifying and exploiting the environment to cater to people’s needs have been a continuous process throughout history. A multidisciplinary analysis of settlements and their environs gives valuable insights into the infrastructure systems ( water systems) that existed in the past. It is possible to study the strengths and weaknesses of these systems, along with the positive and negative impacts on the environment and the changes that have taken place over the centuries. This chapter discusses the modifications carried out in the landscape of Badami in Karnataka to harvest water for the settlement since its establishment as an Early Chalukyan capital in the seventh century. The chapter also highlights the significance of sacred groves in the historic landscape of Badami. The remnants of fortified walls, temples, water features, and sacred grooves testify to the ingenious engineering systems that existed in the past. Some of these historical infrastructure facilities are functional even today. They support the present settlement of Badami, exhibiting resilience and sustainability as these modifications are sensitive to terrain conditions. The chapter concludes by stressing the importance of studying the past infrastructure systems sustained through ages.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or eBook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 169.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 219.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 219.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

Notes

  1. 1.

    As observed on field.

  2. 2.

    Calculation of the catchment area of the reservoirs is by processing the SRTM 30 m resolution DEM, in GIS software using hydrology tools.

  3. 3.

    https://g.co/arts/c9CSmkJ1BgPpz3hQ9 (accessed on 14 May 2021).

  4. 4.

    www.bhuvan-app1.nrsc.gov.in/culture_monuments/; http://www.asidharwadcircle.in/

  5. 5.

    According to Brubaker (2004), the royal enclosure at Hampi has one bastion for approximately every 500 m, and bastions are absent at fort walls only when the terrain is impassable.

  6. 6.

    The chisel marks formed during quarrying of stone blocks as seen on few of the stone blocks used in construction of the masonry are the quarry marks. A curvilinear mark indicates Chalukyan period, and rectilinear belongs to Vijayanagara period.

  7. 7.

    Dateable to Vijayanagara period based on the quarry marks.

  8. 8.

    https://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/5972/ (accessed on 14 May2021).

  9. 9.

    http://mohua.gov.in/cms/hariday.php (accessed on 14 May 2021).

References

  • Abraham M (1988) Two medieval merchant guilds of South India. Manohar Publications, New Delhi

    Google Scholar 

  • Ali D (2011) Botanical technology and garden culture in Somesvara’s Manasollasa. In: Ali D, Flatt E (eds) Garden and landscape practices in precolonial India: histories from the Deccan. Routledge, Delhi, pp 39–53

    Google Scholar 

  • Brubaker R (2004) Cornerstones of control: the infrastructure of imperial security at Vijayanagara, South India. University of Michigan, Michigan

    Google Scholar 

  • Campbell JM (1884) Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, Bijapur, vol XXIII. Government Central Press, Bombay

    Google Scholar 

  • Cousens H (1889) Bijapur: the old capital of the Adil Shahi Kings: a guide to its ruins with a historical outline. Thacker and Co., Bombay

    Google Scholar 

  • Dalavi J, Kambale S, Jadhav V et al (2019) Forest flora of Badami Hills of Bagalkot district, Karnataka, India. Phytotaxa 393(3):204–250

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Davison-Jenkins DJ (1997) The irrigation and water supply systems of Vijayanagara. American Institute of Indian Studies, New Delhi

    Google Scholar 

  • Deloche J (2001) Études Sur Les Fortifications De L’Inde: III. La fortification hindoue Dans Le Sud De L’Inde (VI e). Bulletin De L’École Française D’Extrême-Orient 88:77–134

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Deloche J (2007) Studies on fortification in India. Nouvelle édition [enligne]. Institut Français de Pondichéry, Pondicherry

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Dhavalikar MK (2000) Ladders and snakes: cyclical shifts in culture process. In: Settar S, Kaimal PKV (eds) We lived together. Pragati Publications and Indian Council of Historical Research, Delhi, pp 1–13

    Google Scholar 

  • Dikshit GS, Kuppuswamy GR, Moha SK (1993) Tank irrigation in Karnataka: a historical survey. Gandhi Sahitya Sangha, Bangalore

    Google Scholar 

  • Filliozart V, Filliozat P (2015) Saiva monuments at Pattadakal. Archaeological Survey of India, New Delhi. www.asi.nic.in/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/Pattadakal_16_0516.pdf. Accessed 29 Jan 2021

    Google Scholar 

  • Gaussen H (1965) Mysore: international map of the vegetation and the environmental conditions, scale 1:1,000,000, sheet no: ND43. Indian Council of Agricultural Research and French Institute of Pondicherry, Pondicherry

    Google Scholar 

  • Ghosh A (1973) The city in early historical India. Indian Institute of Advanced Studies, Simla

    Google Scholar 

  • Harshavardhan M, Suganya K (2020) Water harvesting systems of the past – a case study of Badami, India. In: Proceedings of national seminar on recent advances in geospatial technology & applications. IIRS, Dehradun, pp 170–175

    Google Scholar 

  • Jeelani S (2006) Gazetteer of India, Karnataka state Gazetteer, Bijapur district (Bagalkot District included). Government of Karnataka, Bangalore

    Google Scholar 

  • Kakaraddia KH, Kugali NM, Yadawe MS (2014) Determination of physicochemical properties and Escherichia coli in water. Online Int Interdiscip Res J 4(1):156–162. http://www.oiirj.org/oiirj/jan-feb2014/18.pdf. Accessed 14 Jul 2021

    Google Scholar 

  • Khan ML, Khumbongmayum AD, Tripathi RS (2008) The sacred groves and their significance in conserving biodiversity: an overview. Int J Ecol Environ Sci 34(3):277–291

    Google Scholar 

  • KUIDFC (2009) North Karnataka Urban Sector Investment Program (Tranche 2) - Badami TMC Initial Environmental Examination (IEE). Karnataka Urban Infrastructure Development Finance Corporation, Government of Karnataka, Belgaum

    Google Scholar 

  • Kuppa M, Menon SM (2018) Stories from silent stones: on the shape of wedge marks as a diagnostic of stone-craft of different periods. Heritage 6:438–486

    Google Scholar 

  • Lamond J, Everett G (2019) Sustainable Blue-Green Infrastructure: a social practice approach to understanding community preferences and stewardship. Landsc Urban Plan 191:103639. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2019.103639

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lombardo N, Lewis R (2013) Urban planning and geography. Oxford bibliographies in geography. https://doi.org/10.1093/OBO/9780199874002-0080

  • Malhotra KC, Gokhale Y, Chatterjee S (2001) Cultural and ecological dimensions of sacred groves in India. Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi

    Google Scholar 

  • Menon SM (2017) Beyond the tourist’s Badami. Deccan Herald. https://www.deccanherald.com/content/591789/beyond-tourists-badami.html. Accessed 9 Oct 2020

  • Michell G (2014) Temple architecture and art of the early Chalukyan: Badami, Mahakuta, Aihole, Pattadakal. Niyogi Books, New Delhi

    Google Scholar 

  • Monteiro R, Ferreira JC, Antunes P (2020) Green infrastructure planning principles: an integrated literature review. Land 9:525

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Morrison K (2010) Dharmic projects, imperial reservoirs, and new temples of India: an historical perspective on dams in India. Conserv Soc 8(3):182–195

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Morrison K (2013) The human face of the land: why the past matters for ‘India’s environmental future, NMML Occassional Paper History and Society New Series 27. Nehru Memorial Museum and Library, New Delhi

    Google Scholar 

  • Mumford L (1938) The culture of cities. Harcourt, Brace and Company, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Mumford L (1961) The city in history: its origins, its transformations, and its prospects. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Inc, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Nandikar MD, Gurav RV (2018) A new species of Commelina (Commelinaceae) from India. Webbia 73(2):233–237. https://doi.org/10.1080/00837792.2018.1540743

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Norwich JJ (2016) From Mesopotamia to Megalopolis. In: Norwich JJ (ed) The great cities in history. Thames and Hudson, London

    Google Scholar 

  • O’Donnell EC, Lamond JE, Thorne CR (2017) Recognising barriers to implementation of Blue-Green Infrastructure: a Newcastle case study. Urban Water J 14(9):964–971. https://doi.org/10.1080/1573062X.2017.1279190

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Padigar SV (2012) Heritage series: Badami. Department of Archaeology, Museums and Heritage, Bangalore

    Google Scholar 

  • Ray R, Chandran MDS, Ramachandra TV (2014) Biodiversity and ecological assessments of Indian sacred groves. J For Res 25:21–28. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11676-014-0429-2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sathyan BN (1966) Mysore State Gazetteer Bijapur District. Government Press of Printing Stationery and Publications, Bangalore

    Google Scholar 

  • Scarborough VL (2003) How to interpret an ancient landscape. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100(8):4366–4368. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0831134100

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Scarborough VL, Isendahl C (2020) Distributed urban network systems in the tropical archaeological record: toward a model for urban sustainability in the era of climate change. Anthropocene Rev 7(3):208–230

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shaw J, Sutcliffe J (2003) Ancient dams, settlement archaeology and Buddhist propagation in central India: the hydrological background. Hydrol Sci J 48(2):277–291. https://doi.org/10.1623/hysj.48.2.277.44695

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shepard K (1999) The ecological Indian: myth and history. W.W. Norton and Company, London

    Google Scholar 

  • Smith ME (2007) Form and meaning in the earliest cities: a new approach to ancient urban planning. J Plan Hist 6(1):3–47. https://doi.org/10.1177/1538513206293713

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • TRB, NRC (2005) Assessing and managing the ecological impacts of paved roads. Transportation Research Board; National Research Council, Washington, DC. https://doi.org/10.17226/11535

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Yadav S (2017) Badami Taluk aquifer maps and management plans, Bagalkot District, Karnataka State. Central Ground Water Board, Bangalore

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

This study is part of the project titled “Historical Water Systems in the extended landscape of Malaprabha River Valley,” funded by the Indian Heritage in Digital Space (IHDS) of the Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of India. The study reported here forms a chapter in the first author’s doctoral thesis enrolled for PhD at the Manipal Academy of Higher Education (MAHE), Manipal, Karnataka. We thank the valuable comments provided by the reviewers, Dr. Rajashree Ray, Centre for Studies in Ethnobiology, Biodiversity and Sustainability (CEiBa), Kolkata, and Mr. Xavier Benedict, Art & Architecture Research, Development and Education (AARDE) Foundation, Chennai, to refine the manuscript. We thank Prof. Srikumar Menon at NIAS for his valuable inputs about the history and architecture of Badami.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Kuili Suganya .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Ethics declarations

The authors report no conflict of interest for this publication.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2022 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

About this chapter

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Suganya, K., Harshavardhan, M., Rajani, M.B. (2022). The Significance of Ancient Water Systems and the Sacred Groves in the Landscape of Badami, Karnataka: A Geospatial Study. In: Dhyani, S., Basu, M., Santhanam, H., Dasgupta, R. (eds) Blue-Green Infrastructure Across Asian Countries. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-16-7128-9_17

Download citation

Publish with us

Policies and ethics