Environmental issues are multidimensional. The consequences and impacts of environmental degradation are on a wide range of fields, including but not limited to socioeconomy, agricultural productivity, legislation, natural and life sciences, and engineering. To solve these complex environmental issues, a transdisciplinary research collaboration (TDRC) must be conducted in such a way that the evidence generated from this TDRC is implemented in an effective way for policy formulation. This chapter discusses the TDRC approach applied in the establishment of an environmental platform of Tonle Sap Lake in Cambodia as a typical example. This project under the framework of Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS) in Cambodia (grant number JPMJSA1503, funded by the Japan Science and Technology Agency and Japan International Cooperation Agency for 2016–2021) is analyzed from the viewpoint of capacity development, technology transfer, knowledge sharing, resource sharing, and international research collaboration. Moreover, through the TDRC strength, weakness, opportunities, and threat analysis, challenges and opportunities as well as activities and achievements from SATREPS are discussed. Finally, the framework for TDRC in an international scenario comprising developing and developed countries is proposed.