Skip to main content

Fish Oils

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Stroke Revisited: Dyslipidemia in Stroke

Part of the book series: Stroke Revisited ((STROREV))

  • 449 Accesses

Abstract

Fish oil is a significant source of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are the essential PUFAs found in fish oil. Early epidemiologic researches have shown a reverse relationship between fish consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease. Since then, several experimental investigations and clinical studies have demonstrated the advantages of fish oil supplementation in decreasing the development and progression of atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, arrhythmias, heart failure, and ischemic stroke. Possible mechanisms have been investigated, such as lowering triglycerides, altering membrane fluidity, modulation of cardiac ion channels, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, and anti-arrhythmic effects. This chapter will review the mechanism of action of omega-3 PUFAs and their clinical implications in cardiovascular disease and stroke.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 54.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 54.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 79.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  1. Bang HO, Dyerberg J, Hjoorne N. The composition of food consumed by Greenland Eskimos. Acta Med Scand. 1976;200(1–2):69–73.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Dyerberg J, Bang HO, Stoffersen E, Moncada S, Vane JR. Eicosapentaenoic acid and prevention of thrombosis and atherosclerosis? Lancet. 1978;2(8081):117–9.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Hansen AE, Burr GO. Essential fatty acids and human nutrition. J Am Med Assoc. 1946;132(14):855–9.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Mozaffarian D, Rimm EB. Fish intake, contaminants, and human health: evaluating the risks and the benefits. JAMA. 2006;296(15):1885–99.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Roth EM, Harris WS. Fish oil for primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2010;12(1):66–72.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Burr ML, Fehily AM, Gilbert JF, Rogers S, Holliday RM, Sweetnam PM, et al. Effects of changes in fat, fish, and fibre intakes on death and myocardial reinfarction: diet and reinfarction trial (DART). Lancet. 1989;2(8666):757–61.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Bjerregaard P, Dyerberg J. Mortality from ischaemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease in Greenland. Int J Epidemiol. 1988;17(3):514–9.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Kromann N, Green A. Epidemiological studies in the Upernavik district, Greenland. Incidence of some chronic diseases 1950–1974. Acta Med Scand. 1980;208(5):401–6.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Keli SO, Feskens EJ, Kromhout D. Fish consumption and risk of stroke. The Zutphen Study Stroke. 1994;25(2):328–32.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Orencia AJ, Daviglus ML, Dyer AR, Shekelle RB, Stamler J. Fish consumption and stroke in men. 30-year findings of the Chicago Western electric study. Stroke. 1996;27(2):204–9.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Grimsgaard S, Bonaa KH, Hansen JB, Myhre ES. Effects of highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on hemodynamics in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;68(1):52–9.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Harris WS. N-3 fatty acids and serum lipoproteins: human studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;65(5 Suppl):1645S–54S.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. James MJ, Gibson RA, Cleland LG. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory mediator production. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71(1 Suppl):343S–8S.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Miller PE, Van Elswyk M, Alexander DD. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid and blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Hypertens. 2014;27(7):885–96.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  15. Mozaffarian D, Geelen A, Brouwer IA, Geleijnse JM, Zock PL, Katan MB. Effect of fish oil on heart rate in humans: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Circulation. 2005;112(13):1945–52.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Wang C, Chung M, Lichtenstein A, Balk E, Kupelnick B, DeVine D, et al. Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on cardiovascular disease. Evid Rep Technol Assess (Summ). 2004;94:1–8.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Zehr KR, Walker MK. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids improve endothelial function in humans at risk for atherosclerosis: a review. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2018;134:131–40.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. Akshay G, Naga VP, Mayank S, Hakan P, Tom S, Jawahar LM. Fish, fish oils and Cardioprotection: promise or fish tale? Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19:3703.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. Miller M, Cannon CP, Murphy SA, Qin J, Ray KK, Braunwald E, et al. Impact of triglyceride levels beyond low-density lipoprotein cholesterol after acute coronary syndrome in the PROVE IT-TIMI 22 trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008;51(7):724–30.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. Schwartz GG, Abt M, Bao W, DeMicco D, Kallend D, Miller M, et al. Fasting triglycerides predict recurrent ischemic events in patients with acute coronary syndrome treated with statins. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015;65(21):2267–75.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. Backes J, Anzalone D, Hilleman D, Catini J. The clinical relevance of omega-3 fatty acids in the management of hypertriglyceridemia. Lipids Health Dis. 2016;15(1):118.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. Bays HE, Tighe AP, Sadovsky R, Davidson MH. Prescription omega-3 fatty acids and their lipid effects: physiologic mechanisms of action and clinical implications. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2008;6(3):391–409.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. Horton JD, Bashmakov Y, Shimomura I, Shimano H. Regulation of sterol regulatory element binding proteins in livers of fasted and refed mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95(11):5987–92.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  24. Le Jossic-Corcos C, Gonthier C, Zaghini I, Logette E, Shechter I, Bournot P. Hepatic farnesyl diphosphate synthase expression is suppressed by polyunsaturated fatty acids. Biochem J. 2005;385(Pt 3):787–94.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  25. Harris WS, Bulchandani D. Why do omega-3 fatty acids lower serum triglycerides? Curr Opin Lipidol. 2006;17(4):387–93.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. Khan S, Minihane AM, Talmud PJ, Wright JW, Murphy MC, Williams CM, et al. Dietary long-chain n-3 PUFAs increase LPL gene expression in adipose tissue of subjects with an atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype. J Lipid Res. 2002;43(6):979–85.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. Park Y, Harris WS. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation accelerates chylomicron triglyceride clearance. J Lipid Res. 2003;44(3):455–63.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. Mozaffarian D, Wu JH. Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: effects on risk factors, molecular pathways, and clinical events. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011;58(20):2047–67.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. Geleijnse JM, Giltay EJ, Grobbee DE, Donders AR, Kok FJ. Blood pressure response to fish oil supplementation: metaregression analysis of randomized trials. J Hypertens. 2002;20(8):1493–9.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. O’Keefe JH Jr, Abuissa H, Sastre A, Steinhaus DM, Harris WS. Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on resting heart rate, heart rate recovery after exercise, and heart rate variability in men with healed myocardial infarctions and depressed ejection fractions. Am J Cardiol. 2006;97(8):1127–30.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. Demaison L, Blet J, Sergiel JP, Gregoire S, Argaud D. Effect of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids on contractile function of hearts isolated from sedentary and trained rats. Reprod Nutr Dev. 2000;40(2):113–25.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. Mozaffarian D, Gottdiener JS, Siscovick DS. Intake of tuna or other broiled or baked fish versus fried fish and cardiac structure, function, and hemodynamics. Am J Cardiol. 2006;97(2):216–22.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. De Caterina R, Liao JK, Libby P. Fatty acid modulation of endothelial activation. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71(1 Suppl):213S–23S.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  34. Li Q, Zhang Q, Wang M, Zhao S, Ma J, Luo N, et al. Eicosapentaenoic acid modifies lipid composition in caveolae and induces translocation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Biochimie. 2007;89(1):169–77.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  35. Yeung J, Hawley M, Holinstat M. The expansive role of oxylipins on platelet biology. J Mol Med (Berl). 2017;95(6):575–88.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  36. McEwen BJ, Morel-Kopp MC, Chen W, Tofler GH, Ward CM. Effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on platelet function in healthy subjects and subjects with cardiovascular disease. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2013;39(1):25–32.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  37. Knapp HR, Reilly IA, Alessandrini P, FitzGerald GA. In vivo indexes of platelet and vascular function during fish-oil administration in patients with atherosclerosis. N Engl J Med. 1986;314(15):937–42.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  38. Adili R, Hawley M, Holinstat M. Regulation of platelet function and thrombosis by omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2018;139:10–8.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  39. Thies F, Garry JM, Yaqoob P, Rerkasem K, Williams J, Shearman CP, et al. Association of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids with stability of atherosclerotic plaques: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2003;361(9356):477–85.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  40. Marion-Letellier R, Savoye G, Ghosh S. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammation. IUBMB Life. 2015;67(9):659–67.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  41. Ander BP, Dupasquier CM, Prociuk MA, Pierce GN. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and their effects on cardiovascular disease. Exp Clin Cardiol. 2003;8(4):164–72.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  42. Omura M, Kobayashi S, Mizukami Y, Mogami K, Todoroki-Ikeda N, Miyake T, et al. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) induces Ca(2+)-independent activation and translocation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. FEBS Lett. 2001;487(3):361–6.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  43. Stebbins CL, Stice JP, Hart CM, Mbai FN, Knowlton AA. Effects of dietary decosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on eNOS in human coronary artery endothelial cells. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2008;13(4):261–8.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  44. Agbor LN, Wiest EF, Rothe M, Schunck WH, Walker MK. Role of CYP1A1 in modulating the vascular and blood pressure benefits of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2014;351(3):688–98.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  CAS  Google Scholar 

  45. Wiest EF, Walsh-Wilcox MT, Walker MK. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids protect against cigarette smoke-induced oxidative stress and vascular dysfunction. Toxicol Sci. 2017;156(1):300–10.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  46. De Caterina R, Cybulsky MI, Clinton SK, Gimbrone MA Jr, Libby P. The omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoate reduces cytokine-induced expression of proatherogenic and proinflammatory proteins in human endothelial cells. Arterioscler Thromb. 1994;14(11):1829–36.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  47. Robinson JG, Stone NJ. Antiatherosclerotic and antithrombotic effects of omega-3 fatty acids. Am J Cardiol. 2006;98(4A):39i–49i.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  48. Kris-Etherton PM, Harris WS, Appel LJ. American Heart Association. Nutrition C. fish consumption, fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids, and cardiovascular disease. Circulation. 2002;106(21):2747–57.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  49. Dennis EA, Norris PC. Eicosanoid storm in infection and inflammation. Nat Rev Immunol. 2015;15(8):511–23.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  50. Saini RK, Keum YS. Omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids: dietary sources, metabolism, and significance – a review. Life Sci. 2018;203:255–67.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  51. Bowen KJ, Harris WS, Kris-Etherton PM. Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: are there benefits? Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med. 2016;18(11):69.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  52. Lin PY, Mischoulon D, Freeman MP, Matsuoka Y, Hibbeln J, Belmaker RH, et al. Are omega-3 fatty acids antidepressants or just mood-improving agents? The effect depends upon diagnosis, supplement preparation, and severity of depression. Mol Psychiatry. 2012;17(12):1161–3. author reply 3–7

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  53. Schaefer EJ, Bongard V, Beiser AS, Lamon-Fava S, Robins SJ, Au R, et al. Plasma phosphatidylcholine docosahexaenoic acid content and risk of dementia and Alzheimer disease: the Framingham heart study. Arch Neurol. 2006;63(11):1545–50.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  54. Diaz JH. Is fish consumption safe? J La State Med Soc. 2004;156(1):42. 4–9

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  55. Bang HO, Dyerberg J. Plasma lipids and lipoproteins in Greenlandic west coast Eskimos. Acta Med Scand. 1972;192(1–2):85–94.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  56. Abdelhamid AS, Brown TJ, Brainard JS, Biswas P, Thorpe GC, Moore HJ, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020;3:CD003177.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  57. Kromhout D, Bosschieter EB, de Lezenne Coulander C. The inverse relation between fish consumption and 20-year mortality from coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med. 1985;312(19):1205–9.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  58. Fish consumption and mortality from coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med. 1985;313(13):820–4.

    Google Scholar 

  59. Alvarez Campano CG, Macleod MJ, Aucott L, Thies F. Marine-derived n-3 fatty acids therapy for stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019;6:CD012815.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  60. Burr ML. Fish and ischaemic heart disease. World Rev Nutr Diet. 1993;72:49–60.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  61. Group ASC, Bowman L, Mafham M, Wallendszus K, Stevens W, Buck G, et al. Effects of n-3 fatty acid supplements in diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 2018;379(16):1540–50.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Bhatt DL, Steg PG, Miller M, Brinton EA, Jacobson TA, Ketchum SB, et al. Cardiovascular Risk reduction with Icosapent ethyl for hypertriglyceridemia. N Engl J Med. 2019;380(1):11–22.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  63. Manson JE, Cook NR, Lee IM, Christen W, Bassuk SS, Mora S, et al. Marine n-3 fatty acids and prevention of cardiovascular disease and Cancer. N Engl J Med. 2019;380(1):23–32.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  64. Bernasconi AA, Wiest MM, Lavie CJ, Milani RV, Laukkanen JA. Effect of Omega-3 dosage on cardiovascular outcomes: an updated meta-analysis and meta-regression of interventional trials. Mayo Clin Proc. 2020;96(2):304–13.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  65. Iso H, Rexrode KM, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, Colditz GA, Speizer FE, et al. Intake of fish and omega-3 fatty acids and risk of stroke in women. JAMA. 2001;285(3):304–12.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  66. He K, Rimm EB, Merchant A, Rosner BA, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, et al. Fish consumption and risk of stroke in men. JAMA. 2002;288(24):3130–6.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  67. He K, Song Y, Daviglus ML, Liu K, Van Horn L, Dyer AR, et al. Fish consumption and incidence of stroke: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. Stroke. 2004;35(7):1538–42.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  68. Xun P, Qin B, Song Y, Nakamura Y, Kurth T, Yaemsiri S, et al. Fish consumption and risk of stroke and its subtypes: accumulative evidence from a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012;66(11):1199–207.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  69. Veno SK, Bork CS, Jakobsen MU, Lundbye-Christensen S, McLennan PL, Bach FW, et al. Marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the Risk of ischemic stroke. Stroke. 2019;50(2):274–82.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  70. Dangour AD, Allen E, Elbourne D, Fasey N, Fletcher AE, Hardy P, et al. Effect of 2-y n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on cognitive function in older people: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;91(6):1725–32.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  71. Foroughinia F, Jamshidi E, Javanmardi H, Safari A, Borhani-Haghighi A. Effectiveness and safety of omega-3 fatty acids for the prevention of ischemic complications following carotid artery stenting: an early terminated pilot study. Iran J Neurol. 2018;17(1):11–7.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  72. Poppitt SD, Howe CA, Lithander FE, Silvers KM, Lin RB, Croft J, et al. Effects of moderate-dose omega-3 fish oil on cardiovascular risk factors and mood after ischemic stroke: a randomized, controlled trial. Stroke. 2009;40(11):3485–92.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  73. Rist PM, Buring JE, Cook NR, Manson JE, Rexrode KM. Effect of vitamin D and/or omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on stroke outcomes: a randomized trial. Eur J Neurol. 2021;28(3):809–15.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  74. Tavazzi L, Maggioni AP, Marchioli R, Barlera S, Franzosi MG, Latini R, et al. Effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in patients with chronic heart failure (the GISSI-HF trial): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2008;372(9645):1223–30.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  75. Garbagnati F, Cairella G, De Martino A, Multari M, Scognamiglio U, Venturiero V, et al. Is antioxidant and n-3 supplementation able to improve functional status in poststroke patients? Results from the Nutristroke trial. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2009;27(4):375–83.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  76. Risk PS. Collaborative G, Roncaglioni MC, Tombesi M, Avanzini F, Barlera S, et al. n-3 fatty acids in patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. N Engl J Med. 2013;368(19):1800–8.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  77. Kromhout D, Giltay EJ, Geleijnse JM. Alpha omega trial G. n-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular events after myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 2010;363(21):2015–26.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  78. Yokoyama M, Origasa H, Matsuzaki M, Matsuzawa Y, Saito Y, Ishikawa Y, et al. Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid on major coronary events in hypercholesterolaemic patients (JELIS): a randomised open-label, blinded endpoint analysis. Lancet. 2007;369(9567):1090–8.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  79. Tanaka K, Ishikawa Y, Yokoyama M, Origasa H, Matsuzaki M, Saito Y, et al. Reduction in the recurrence of stroke by eicosapentaenoic acid for hypercholesterolemic patients: subanalysis of the JELIS trial. Stroke. 2008;39(7):2052–8.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  80. Saito G, Zapata R, Rivera R, Zambrano H, Rojas D, Acevedo H, et al. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a randomized pilot trial of pharmaconutrition. Surg Neurol Int. 2017;8:304.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  81. Jiang X, Pu H, Hu X, Wei Z, Hong D, Zhang W, et al. A post-stroke therapeutic regimen with Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids that promotes white matter integrity and beneficial microglial responses after cerebral ischemia. Transl Stroke Res. 2016;7(6):548–61.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  82. Mo Z, Tang C, Li H, Lei J, Zhu L, Kou L, et al. Eicosapentaenoic acid prevents inflammation induced by acute cerebral infarction through inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Life Sci. 2020;242:117133.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  83. Cai W, Liu S, Hu M, Sun X, Qiu W, Zheng S, et al. Post-stroke DHA treatment protects against acute ischemic brain injury by skewing macrophage polarity toward the M2 phenotype. Transl Stroke Res. 2018;9(6):669–80.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  84. Wiesmann M, Zinnhardt B, Reinhardt D, Eligehausen S, Wachsmuth L, Hermann S, et al. A specific dietary intervention to restore brain structure and function after ischemic stroke. Theranostics. 2017;7(2):493–512.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  85. Cai M, Zhang W, Weng Z, Stetler RA, Jiang X, Shi Y, et al. Promoting neurovascular recovery in aged mice after ischemic stroke – prophylactic effect of Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Aging Dis. 2017;8(5):531–45.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Man-Seok Park .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2021 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

About this chapter

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Kim, JM., Park, MS. (2021). Fish Oils. In: Lee, SH., Kang, M.K. (eds) Stroke Revisited: Dyslipidemia in Stroke. Stroke Revisited. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-16-3923-4_10

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-16-3923-4_10

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Singapore

  • Print ISBN: 978-981-16-3922-7

  • Online ISBN: 978-981-16-3923-4

  • eBook Packages: MedicineMedicine (R0)

Publish with us

Policies and ethics