Computational Modeling of Bubble Formation on Submerged Orifice

Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering book series (LNME)


This paper presents the computational study of air bubble evolution and disengagement in water from a single nozzle (1mmdiameter) underwater with an airflow rate of 2 mL/min using the VOF method with the LS method coupled. We have investigated the bubble evolution at different contact angles (\(50^{ \circ } \le \theta_{0} \le 110^{ \circ }\) at solid–liquid–gas interface. We examined the variation of bubble volume (V) at different contact angle and size of the bubble at the base (D) and we investigate the stages of growth of bubble termed as (1) nucleation period, (2) under critical growth, (3) critical growth, and (4) necking, during bubble rising or evolution. I saw in my study that the bubble volume depends on the wetting condition and bubble volume increases drastically as contact angle varied \(\theta_{0}\), changes from \(50^{ \circ }\) to \(110^{ \circ }\). Bubble evolution is beginning to be regulated by the hysteresis of contact angle. During the expansion stage and elongation stage of the bubble, bubble shape oscillates which was observed in my simulation. In the initial rise of bubble surface tension, capillary force is dominated and variation of viscous drag force is neglected.


Bubble evolution The surface of the bubble Evolution time Multiphase 


  1. 1.
    L. Davidson, E.H. Amick, Am. Inst. Chem. Eng. J. 2, 337 (1956)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    J.F. Davidson, B.O.G. Schüler, Bubble formation at an orifice in a inviscous liquid. Trans. Inst. Chem. Eng. 38, 335–342 (1960a)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    A.A. Kulkarni, J.B. Joshi, Bubble formation and bubble rise velocity in gas–liquid systems: a review. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 44, 5873–5931 (2005)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    R. Kumar, N.R. Kuloor, The formation of bubbles and drops. Adv. Chem. Eng. 8, 256–368 (1970)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    J.F. Davidson, B.O.G. Schüler, Bubble formation at an orifice in a viscous liquid. Trans. Inst. Chem. Eng. 38, 144–154 (1960b)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    M. Jamialahmadi, M.R. Zehtaban, H. Müller-Steinhagen, A. Sarrafi, J.M. Smith, Study of bubble formation under constant flow conditions. Chem. Eng. Res. Des. 79(A5), 523–532 (2001)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    H. Tsuge, Hydrodynamics of bubble formation from submerged orifices. Encyclopedia Fluid Mech. 3, 191–232 (1986)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    F.J. Higuera, Injection and coalescence of bubbles in a very viscous liquid. J Fluid Mech. 530, 369–378 (2005)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    N.K. Kyriakides, E.G. Kastrinakis, S.G. Nychas, A. Goulas, Bubbling from nozzles submerged in water: transition between bubbling regimes. Cana. J. Chem. Eng. 75, 684–691 (1997)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    L. Zhang, M. Shoji, Aperiodic bubble formation from a submerged orifice. Chem. Eng. Sci. 56, 5371–5381 (2001)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    A. Tufaile, J.C. Sartorelli, Bubble and spherical air shell formation dynamics. Phys. Rev. E 66, 056204 (2002)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    A.B. Ponter, A.I. Surati, Bubble emission from submerged orifices—a critical review. Chem. Eng. Tech. 20, 85–89 (1997)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    K. Terasaka, H. Tsuge, Bubble formation under constant-flow conditions. Chem. Eng. Sci. 48(19), 3417–3422 (1993)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    V.V. Buwa, D. Gerlach, F. Durst, E. Schlücker, Numerical simulation of bubble formation on submerged orifices: Period-1 and Period-2 bubbling regimes. Chem. Eng. Sci. (2007)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    D. Gerlach, N. Alleborn, V. Buwa, F. Durst, Numerical simulation of periodic bubble formation at a submerged orifice with constant gas flow rate. Chem. Eng. Sci. (2007)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2022

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringDelhi Technological UniversityDelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations