Skip to main content

Experimenting the Impact of Pedestrianisation on Urban Pollution Using Tangible Agent-Based Simulations: Application to Hoan Kiem District, Hanoi, Vietnam

  • 353 Accesses

Part of the Springer Proceedings in Mathematics & Statistics book series (PROMS,volume 359)


The development of permanent or temporary pedestrian areas, whether for leisure or to decrease air pollution, has become an integral part of urban planning in numerous cities around the world. Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam, began to implement its first area, around the iconic Hoan Kiem lake, a few years ago. In most of cases, however, road closure is likely to deport traffic to nearby neighbourhoods with the consequences of intensifying congestion and, possibly, increasing air pollution in these areas. Because this outcome might appear counter-intuitive to most stakeholders, it is becoming more and more necessary to analyse, assess and share the impacts of these developments in terms of traffic and pollution shifts before implementing them. In this project, we used the GAMA platform to build an agent-based model that simulates the traffic, its emissions of air pollutants, and the diffusion of these pollutants in the district of Hoan Kiem. This simulation has been designed so as to serve either as a decision support tool for local authorities or as an awareness-raising tool for the general public: thanks to its display on a physical 3D model of the district, people can effectively and naturally interact with it at public venues. Although more accurate data and more realistic diffusion models are necessary and will need further research in the future, the simulation is already able to reflect traffic and air pollution peaks during rush hours, allowing residents and developers to understand the impact of pedestrianization on air quality in different scenarios.


  • Agent-based model
  • Air pollution
  • Urban traffic
  • GAMA platform
  • Interactive simulation

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-981-16-2629-6_4
  • Chapter length: 35 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
USD   149.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-981-16-2629-6
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   199.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   199.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16
Fig. 17
Fig. 18
Fig. 19


  1. 1.

    [37] illustrates a genealogy of traffic flow models.

  2. 2.

    The model is mesoscopic because we rely on the Underwood model to compute vehicle speeds.

  3. 3.

    [19] shown that displaying a flood simulation even on a flat table for participative simulations provides a much better immersion for participants and increase discussions than displaying it on a wall.

  4. 4.

    LakeViz3D project:

  5. 5.

    The model is open-source and available for its GitHub repository:

  6. 6.

    To be more precise, the decay factor has to be understood as the remaining ratio of pollutant after decay. If it values 0.99, this means that after decay, 99% of pollutants are kept or in other words, that they have been reduced by 1%.

  7. 7.


  8. 8.

    A video is available to illustrate the dynamics of simulations at the address:

  9. 9.

    STL is a datafile format describing 3D objects and very common as an input for 3D printers.

  10. 10.

    The full process and in particular the various softwares used are documented on the HoanKiemAir GitHub repository:

  11. 11.

    Apache ActiveMQ is an implementation of an MQTT broker, see

  12. 12.

    constant traffic is the mode also used when we want the user to change itself the number of vehicles through the application.


  1. ALMEC Corp, Nippon Koei Co Ltd., Yachiyo Engineering Co Ltd.: The comprehensive urban development programme in Hanoi Capital City of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (HAIDEP) (2007)

    Google Scholar 

  2. Alonso, L., Zhang, Y.R., Grignard, A., Noyman, A., Sakai, Y., ElKatsha, M., Doorley, R., Larson, K.: CityScope: a data-driven interactive simulation tool for urban design. use case Volpe. In: International Conference on Complex Systems, pp. 253–261. Springer (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  3. Arnaud, B.: Simulating pedestrian behavior in complex and dynamic environments: An agent-based perspective. In: F., B., Mager, C. (eds.) European Handbook of Theoretical and Quantitative Geography, pp. 1–27. Faculty of Geosciences and Environment of the University of Lausanne (2009)

    Google Scholar 

  4. Banos, A., Corson, N., Lang, C., Marilleau, N., Taillandier, P.: Multiscale modeling: application to traffic flow. In: Agent-Based Spatial Simulation with NetLogo, vol. 2, pp. 37–62. Elsevier (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  5. Bigazzi, A.Y., Rouleau, M.: Can traffic management strategies improve urban air quality? A review of the evidence. J. Transp. Health 7, 111–124 (2017)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  6. Chao, Q., Bi, H., Li, W., Mao, T., Wang, Z., Lin, M.C., Deng, Z.: A survey on visual traffic simulation: models, evaluations, and applications in autonomous driving. Comput. Graph. Forum 39(1), 287–308 (2020)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  7. Chapuis, K., Taillandier, P., Gaudou, B., Drogoul, A., Daudé, E.: A multi-modal urban traffic agent-based framework to study individual response to catastrophic events. In: International Conference on Principles and Practice of Multi-Agent Systems, pp. 440–448. Springer (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  8. Chifflet, S., Amouroux, D., Bérail, S., Barre, J., Van, T.C., Baltrons, O., Brune, J., Dufour, A., Guinot, B., Mari, X.: Origins and discrimination between local and regional atmospheric pollution in Haiphong (Vietnam), based on metal(loid) concentrations and lead isotopic ratios in PM 10. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 25(26), 26653–26668 (2018)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  9. Cohen, P.R.: Empirical Methods for Artificial Intelligence, vol. 139. MIT Press, Cambridge (1995)

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  10. Emery, J., Marilleau, N., Martiny, N., Thévenin, T., Nguyen-Huu, T., Badram, M., Grignard, A., Hbdid, H., Laatabi, A.M., Toubhi, S.: Marrakair: une simulation participative pour observer les émissions atmosphériques du trafic routier en milieu urbain. In: Treizièmes Rencontres de Théo Quant (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  11. Fleck, S., Rivière, G., Ticona-Herrera, R., Couture, N.: Classifying tangible user interfaces with cladistics: criteria and forms for a collaborative inventory. In: Proceedings of the 30th Conference on l’Interaction Homme-Machine, pp. 209–218 (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  12. Grignard, A., Alonso, L., Taillandier, P., Gaudou, B., Nguyen-Huu, T., Gruel, W., Larson, K.: The impact of new mobility modes on a city: a generic approach using ABM. In: International Conference on Complex Systems, pp. 272–280. Springer (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  13. Grignard, A., Macià, N., Alonso Pastor, L., Noyman, A., Zhang, Y., Larson, K.: Cityscope Andorra: a multi-level interactive and tangible agent-based visualization. In: Proceedings of AAMAS, pp. 1939–1940 (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  14. Grimm, V., Berger, U., Deangelis, D., Polhill, J., Giske, J., F. Railsback, S.: The ODD protocol: a review and first update. Ecol. Model. 221, 2760–2768 (2010)

    Google Scholar 

  15. Hertel, O., Berkowicz, R.: Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM). Evaluation of the model on data from St. Olavs street in Oslo. Technical report, National Environmental Research Institute, Danish Ministry of the Environment (01 1989)

    Google Scholar 

  16. Hoogendoorn, S.P., Bovy, P.H.L.: State-of-the-art of vehicular traffic flow modelling. J. Syst. Control Eng. 215(4), 283–303 (2001)

    Google Scholar 

  17. Kobayashi, K., Narita, A., Hirano, M., Kase, I., Tsuchida, S., Omi, T., Kakizaki, T., Hosokawa, T.: Collaborative simulation interface for planning disaster measures. In: CHI 2006 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 977–982 (2006)

    Google Scholar 

  18. Kubicki, S., Lepreux, S., Kolski, C.: RFID-driven situation awareness on Tangisense, a table interacting with tangible objects. Pers. Ubiquitous Comput. 16(8), 1079–1094 (2012)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  19. Laatabi, A., Becu, N., Marilleau, N., Pignon-Mussaud, C., Amalric, M., Bertin, X., Anselme, B., Beck, E.: Mapping and describing geospatial data to generalize complex models: the case of LittoSIM-GEN. Int. J. Geospatial Environ. Res. 7(1), 6 (2020)

    Google Scholar 

  20. Lebrun, Y., Adam, E., Mandiau, R., Kolski, C.: A model for managing interactions between tangible and virtual agents on an RFID interactive tabletop: case study in traffic simulation. J. Comput. Syst. Sci. 81(3), 585–598 (2015)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  21. Lighthill, M.J., Whitham, G.B.: On kinematic waves II. A theory of traffic flow on long crowded roads. Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. Ser. A Math. Phys. Sci. 229(1178), 317–345 (1955)

    Google Scholar 

  22. Macal, C., North, M.: Tutorial on agent-based modelling and simulation. J. Simul. 4, 151–162 (2010)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  23. Mitchell, M.: Complexity: A Guided Tour. Oxford University Press, Oxford (2009)

    Google Scholar 

  24. Nagel, K., Schreckenberg, M.: A cellular automaton model for freeway traffic. Journal de physique I 2(12), 2221–2229 (1992)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  25. Ntziachristos, L., Gkatzoflias, D., Kouridis, C., Samaras, Z.: COPERT: a European road transport emission inventory model. In: Information Technologies in Environmental Engineering, pp. 491–504, January 2009

    Google Scholar 

  26. Organization, W.H.: WHO releases country estimates on air pollution exposure and health impact (2016).

  27. Petrasova, A., Harmon, B., Petras, V., Mitasova, H.: Tangible Modeling with Open Source GIS. Springer (2015)

    Google Scholar 

  28. Pham, M.D., Chapuis, K., Drogoul, A., Gaudou, B., Grignard, A., Marilleau, N., Tri, N.H.: HoanKiemAir: simulating impacts of urban management practices on traffic and air pollution using a tangible agent-based model. In: The 2020 RIVF International Conference on Computing and Communication Technologies, pp. 1–7. IEEE (2020)

    Google Scholar 

  29. Richards, P.I.: Shock waves on the highway. Oper. Res. 4(1), 42–51 (1956)

    MathSciNet  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  30. Rodrique, K., Ho, T., Nguyen, M.H.: An agent-based simulation for studying air pollution from traffic in urban areas: the case of Hanoi city. IJACSA 10, 596–604 (2019)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  31. Salim, F.: Tangible 3D urban simulation table. In: Proceedings of the Symposium on Simulation for Architecture & Urban Design, vol. 23. Society for Computer Simulation International (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  32. Saltelli, A., Chan, K., Scott, E.M.: Sensitivity Analysis, vol. 1. Wiley, New York (2000)

    Google Scholar 

  33. Taillandier, P., Gaudou, B., Grignard, A., Huynh, Q.N., Marilleau, N., Caillou, P., Philippon, D., Drogoul, A.: Building, composing and experimenting complex spatial models with the GAMA platform. GeoInformatica 23(2), 299–322 (2019)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  34. Tho Hung, N., Ketzel, M., Jensen, S., Oanh, N.T.: Air pollution modeling at road sides using the operational street pollution model-a case study in Hanoi. Vietnam. J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 1995(60), 1315–1326 (2010)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  35. Underwood, R.T.: Speed, volume and density relationships. Quality and theory of traffic flow (1961)

    Google Scholar 

  36. Vietnam Env. Admin.: Quyet dinh 878/QD-TCMT ve viec ban hanh so tay huong dan tinh toan chi so chat luong khong khi (AQI) (2011)

    Google Scholar 

  37. van Wageningen-Kessels, F., Van Lint, H., Vuik, K., Hoogendoorn, S.: Genealogy of traffic flow models. EURO J. Transp. Logist. 4(4), 445–473 (2015)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  38. Woods, T.L., Reed, S., Hsi, S., Woods, J.A., Woods, M.R.: Pilot study using the augmented reality sandbox to teach topographic maps and surficial processes in introductory geology labs. J. Geosci. Educ. 64(3), 199–214 (2016)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  39. Zhang, K., Batterman, S.: Air pollution and health risks due to vehicle traffic. Sci. Total Environ. 450, 307–316 (2013)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

Download references


The HoanKiemAir project was funded by the French embassy in Vietnam, in collaboration with the Hoan Kiem district People’s Committee and PRX Vietnam.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2021 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

About this paper

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this paper

Brugière, A. et al. (2021). Experimenting the Impact of Pedestrianisation on Urban Pollution Using Tangible Agent-Based Simulations: Application to Hoan Kiem District, Hanoi, Vietnam. In: Mohd, M.H., Misro, M.Y., Ahmad, S., Nguyen Ngoc, D. (eds) Modelling, Simulation and Applications of Complex Systems. CoSMoS 2019. Springer Proceedings in Mathematics & Statistics, vol 359. Springer, Singapore.

Download citation