This paper analyses the rapid expansion of professional higher education (PHE) in India in its several dimensions. Using secondary database, it discusses (a) trend and patterns of growth in professional higher education, (b) inequalities in access, (c) barriers to participation, and (d) household financing of professional higher education. We find striking regional inequality in the growth of PHE in India in the last decade—close to 40% of professional higher education institutions are located in southern region while it is less than 10% in central, eastern and north-eastern regions. Findings also suggest that students belonging to poor households are not only underrepresented in PHE but also spend considerably less on it than their rich counterparts. The discussion on the status and prospects of professional higher education in India in this chapter will be useful to the academia, regulatory bodies and policy makers.
This is the revised version of the paper presented in the seminar on ‘Indian Economy and Society’ held on 7th and 8th February 2020 at the Centre for Development Studies (CDS), Thiruvananthapuram. We are extremely grateful to the participants of the seminar for their valuable comments and suggestions on the earlier version of the draft. We acknowledge the invaluable feedback received from Prof. Sunil Mani, Prof. Mary E. John, Prof. Ram Singh, Prof. Sebastian Morris on the work. All errors are our own.
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Detail on the explanatory variables used in the probit model is discussed in Table 11.9 in appendix.
Progressive closure means institute cannot admit the students for the first year during the academic year for which progressive closure is granted; however, the existing students will continue.
‘Others’ include Christian, Sikh, Jain, Buddhist, Zoroastrian and other religions.
Private institutions include both private-aided and un-aided higher education institutions.
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Choudhury, P.K., Kumar, A. (2021). Changing Landscape of Professional Higher Education in India: What Do We Know and What Do Recent Data Tell Us?. In: Mani, S., Iyer, C.G. (eds) India’s Economy and Society. India Studies in Business and Economics. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-16-0869-8_11
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