Swelling Behavior and Permeability of Polymerized Bentonite with Due Monomers

Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering book series (LNCE, volume 144)


To improve the anti-cationic solution capability of geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs), new polymerized bentonites (PBs) were produced for potential use as cores of GCLs. PBs were produced using free radical polymerization method with due monomers, acrylic acid (M1) and acrylamide (M2), and potassium persulfate as initiator (I). The natural bentonite (UB) used was a sodium type one. The adopted pH was 6, I/(M1 + M2) ratio of 0.005, and (M1 + M2)/UB ratio of 0.05 (0.05 PB) and 0.1 (0.1 PB). The results of the X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicate that PBs produced in this study can be classified as micro-composite. The swelling capacity of the PBs was investigated by free swelling index (FSI) tests. In deionized water, 0.1 M to 0.6 M NaCl and 0.03 to 0.06 M CaCl2 solutions, the values of FSI of PBs are higher than that of UB. For PBs, FSI increased with increase of polymer/bentonite ratio. In deionized water, FSI of 0.1 PB was more than 5 times that of the UB. The values of permeability of the PBs and UB with 0.6 M NaCl solution were deduced from oedometer test results. At the same void ratio, the permeability of 0.1 PB was more than one order lower than that of the UB. For the 0.1 PB, for void ratio up to 7.5, the value of k was less than 10–10 m/s. Therefore, 0.1 PB can be used as core material of GCLs to be used under higher concentration of Na+ environment.


GCL Polymerized bentonite Free swelling index 



This work has been supported by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (KAKENHI) of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) with a grant number of 17K06558.


  1. 1.
    Komine, H., Ogata, N.: Predicting swelling characteristics of bentonites. J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng. ASCE. 130(8), 818–829 (2004).
  2. 2.
    Katsumi, T., Ishimori, H., Ogawa, A., Yoshikawa, K., Hanamoto, K., Fukagawa, R.: Hydraulic conductivity of nonprehydrated geosynthetic clay liners permeated with inorganic solutions and waste leachates. Soils Found. 47 (Katsumi, Ishimori et al. 2007), 79–96 (2007).
  3. 3.
    Shackelford, C., Benson, C., Katsumi, T., Edil, T., Lin, L.: Evaluating the hydraulic conductivity of GCLs permeated with non-standard liquids. Geotext. Geomemb. 18(2–4), 133–161 (2000). Scholar
  4. 4.
    Alther, G.R.: The role of bentonite in soil sealing applications. Bull. Assoc. Eng. Geol. 19, 401–409 (1982). Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kolstad, D., Benson, C., Edil, T.: Hydraulic conductivity and swell of nonprehydrated GCLs permeated with multispecies inorganic solutions. J. Geotech. Geoenviron. 130(12), 1236–1249 (2004). Scholar
  6. 6.
    Benson, C., Oren, A., Gates, W.: Hydraulic conductivity of two geosynthetic clay liners permeated with a hyperalkaline solution. Geotext. Geomemb. 28(2), 206–218 (2010). Scholar
  7. 7.
    Prongmanee, N., Chai, J.C.: Effect of shape of damage hole on self-healing capacity of GCL. Geosynth. Eng. J. 32, 59–64 (2017).
  8. 8.
    Scalia, J., Benson, C., Bohnhoff, G., Edil, T., Shackelford, C.: Long-term hydraulic conductivity of a bentonite-polymer composite permeated with aggressive inorganic solutions. J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng. 140(3) (2014).
  9. 9.
    Jo, H.Y., Katsumi, T., Benson, C.H., Edil, T.B.: Hydraulic conductivity and swelling of nonprehydrated GCLs permeated with single-species salt solutions. J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng. ASCE 127(7), 557–567 (2001).
  10. 10.
    Razakamanantsoa, A.R., Barast, G., Djeran-Maigre, I.: Hydraulic performance of activated calcium bentonite treated by polyionic charged polymer. Appl. Clay Sci. 59, 103–114 (2012). Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chai, J.C., Sari, K., Hino, T.: Effect of type of leachate on self-healing capacity of geosynthetic clay liner. Geosynth. Eng. J. 28, 93–98 (2013). Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bohnhoff, G.L., Shackelford, C.D.: Improving membrane performance via bentonite polymer nanocomposite. Appl. Clay Sci. 86, 83–98 (2013). Scholar
  13. 13.
    Di Emidio, G., Van Impe, W., Mazzieri, F.: A polymer enhanced clay for impermeable geosynthetic clay liners. In: Proc., 6th Int. Conf. on Environmental Geotechnics, Balkema, Rotterdam, Netherlands, pp. 963–967 (2010).
  14. 14.
    Tian, K., et al.: Polymer elution and hydraulic conductivity of bentonite–polymer composite geosynthetic clay liners. J. Geotech. Geoenviron. 145(10) (2019).
  15. 15.
    Di Emidio, G., Mazzieri, F., Verastegui-Flores, R.D., Van Impe, W., Bezuijen, A.: Polymer-treated bentonite clay for chemical-resistant geosynthetic clay liners. Geosynth. Int. 22, 125–137 (2015). Scholar
  16. 16.
    Alexandre, M., Dubois, P.: Polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites: preparation, properties and uses of a new class of materials. Mater. Sci. Eng. R Rep. 28(1–2), 1–63 (2000). Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ruiz-Hitzky, E., van Meerbeek, A.: Clay mineral- and organoclay–polymer nanocomposite. In: Bergaya, F., Theng, B.K.G., Lagaly, G. (eds.), Handbook of Clay Science. Elsevier, Amsterdam; Boston, pp. 141–245 (2006).
  18. 18.
    ASTM: Standard test method for swell index of clay mineral component of geosynthetic clay liners. ASTM D5890. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM (2006).
  19. 19.
    ASTM: Standard test methods for one dimensional consolidation properties of soils using incremental loading. ASTM D2. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM (2018).
  20. 20.
    Bohnhoff, G.L., Shackelford, C.D.: Consolidation behavior of polymerized bentonite-amended backfills. J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng. 140(5), 04013055 (2014). Scholar
  21. 21.
    Quang, N.D., Chai. J.C.: Permeability of lime-and cementtreated clayey soils. Can. Geotech. J. 52(9), 1221–1227 (2015).

Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2021

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil Engineering and ArchitectureSaga UnivSagaJapan
  2. 2.Honjo-machiSagaJapan

Personalised recommendations