Mesothelioma is an aggressive tumor that occurs in the pleura, peritoneum, pericardium, and rarely tunica vaginalis. The management of mesothelioma is complex, and the outcomes are not satisfactory, although combined-modality treatment including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation has been performed. Immune checkpoint inhibitors are expected to improve the outcomes of mesothelioma. However, their efficacy is limited in some patients, in comparison to other cancer outcomes. Therefore, novel or combined therapies for mesothelioma are eagerly awaited. Virotherapy may be a useful tool for mesothelioma treatment. Viral immune therapy involves treating tumors by activating antitumor immunity using viruses. Virotherapy can be divided by the mechanism into viral immune therapy, antitumor oncolytic viral therapy, and gene therapy using viruses as vectors. Viral immune therapy is typically used with oncolytic viruses and activates the antitumor immunity via viral infection or oncolysis. Since viral immune therapy activates the antitumor immunity, virotherapy has received attention concerning its combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors or other immune therapeutic agents. Oncolytic viral therapy involves the induction of direct tumor cell death by oncolytic viruses, while gene therapy uses viruses as vectors to encode tumor suppressor genes or other genes. A large number of viruses used for virotherapy have an enhanced antitumor effect due to either genetic or other modifications. We herein review the clinical trials of virotherapy against mesothelioma and describe the non-replicating oncolytic virus (hemagglutinating virus of Japan [Sendai virus] envelope) used for our clinical trials of viral immune therapy against mesothelioma.
- Non-replicating oncolytic virus
- Hemagglutinating virus of Japan envelope
- Sendai virus
- Oncolytic viruses
- Viral immune therapy
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Sakura, K., Shintani, Y., Okumura, M. (2021). Viral Immune Therapy and Other Virotherapies for Advanced Mesothelioma: Are We Ready for Clinical Trials of Viral Immune Therapy?. In: Nakano, T., Kijima, T. (eds) Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma. Respiratory Disease Series: Diagnostic Tools and Disease Managements. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-9158-7_25
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