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Extended Reality (XR:VR/AR/MR), 3D Printing, Holography, A.I., Radiomics, and Online VR Tele-Medicine for Precision Surgery


Surgical navigation has become essential for surgeons to accurately and safely perform precision surgery. The 3D organ modeling based on individual patient’s medical image data is indispensable for simulation, navigation, and education for accurate and safe surgery. Thus, radiomics is a crucial role in systematically scientizing the enormous amount of radiological image information.

The polygon data in the shape of organs has already been put into practical use for surgical simulation and navigation using extended reality (XR), including virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR), mixed reality (MR), or 3D-printing technology. Machine learning with artificial intelligence may improve the accuracy of organ extraction.

We have developed an application that digitally analyzes CT and MRI data of individual patients, automatically extracts feature points of the organ shape with artificial intelligence (AI), converts them into polygons, and views these organ shape coordinates as XR. We also developed a 3D-printing surgical simulation and navigation system using anatomically accurate bio-elastic wet hemorrhagic organ replica by the resins, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and water based on MDCT data.

These could further develop “personalized medicine” into “precision medicine,” which selects individual analysis and establishes the optimal treatment for each specific population. Our patient-specific XR surgical navigation is highly effective and reduce surgical time, blood loss, and adverse event. This system must have value for future surgeons.


  • Virtual reality (VR)
  • Augmented reality (AR)
  • Mixed reality (MR)
  • Image-guided navigation surgery
  • Surgical simulation

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This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers JP 19152948, JP 19167615.

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Correspondence to Maki Sugimoto .

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Sugimoto, M. (2021). Extended Reality (XR:VR/AR/MR), 3D Printing, Holography, A.I., Radiomics, and Online VR Tele-Medicine for Precision Surgery. In: Takenoshita, S., Yasuhara, H. (eds) Surgery and Operating Room Innovation. Springer, Singapore.

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  • Print ISBN: 978-981-15-8978-2

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