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After the 2004 Bangladesh Flood: Integrated Management for Flood Disaster Risk Reduction in Four Different Areas

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Part of the Disaster Risk Reduction book series (DRR)

Abstract

Flood disaster is a critical issue in Bangladesh, with the most severe cases of flooding occurring in July and August. Regular river floods affect 20% of the country, increasing up to 68% in extreme years. After such catastrophic floods, the policy, action, strategy, and plan for flood disaster risk reduction have been developed. The floods of 1987, 1988, 1998, 2004, and 2007 were particularly catastrophic, resulting in large-scale destruction and loss of lives. After the 1988 flood, a strategy of “living with the floods” was developed to achieve sustainable agricultural development and this concept was integrated into the country’s Flood Action Plan. In 1998, 68% of Bangladesh was inundated by floods. The earthen embankments were unable to give protection against the floods in 1998, even against some medium floods in the 1990s. Catastrophic disasters in the 1990s affected institutional development, giving rise to an integrated water resource management program. In 2004, Bangladesh experienced devastating floods from July to September, with 56,000 km2 (about 38% of the country) inundated. Consequently, a more comprehensive risk reduction program was established to effectively address the complexity of water management. This paper looks at the flood history of Bangladesh, the different flood phenomena and approaches used after 2004, and the ways climate and social change affected flood disaster mitigation and people’s livelihood. It then discusses an integrated program for disaster risk reduction and resource management.

Keywords

  • Bangladesh
  • Flood disaster risk reduction
  • Climate change
  • Social change
  • Local people’s participation

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Fig. 14.1
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(Source Department of Disaster Management 2014)

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(Source CRED 2016)

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(Source World Bank 2016, http://www.multpl.com/bangladesh-population)

Fig. 14.6
Fig. 14.7
Fig. 14.8
Fig. 14.9

(Source Based on OCHA/ReliefWeb 2004)

Fig. 14.10

(Source http://en.banglapedia.org/images/thumb/0/06/FloodAffectedArea.jpg/457px-FloodAffectedArea.jpg)

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Acknowledgment

The authors wish to thank the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) for their support of the SATREPS Project “Research project on disaster prevention/mitigation measures against floods and storm surges in Bangladesh.”

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Correspondence to Kumiko Fujita .

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Fujita, K., Shaw, R., Parvin, G.A. (2021). After the 2004 Bangladesh Flood: Integrated Management for Flood Disaster Risk Reduction in Four Different Areas. In: Pulhin, J.M., Inoue, M., Shaw, R. (eds) Climate Change, Disaster Risks, and Human Security. Disaster Risk Reduction. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-8852-5_14

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