Skip to main content

The Performance Potential of Domestic Heat Pumps in a Temperate Oceanic Climate

  • Conference paper
  • First Online:
Sustainability in Energy and Buildings 2020

Part of the book series: Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies ((SIST,volume 203))

Abstract

Domestic purpose heat pumps are commonly rated based on a manufacturer specified single coefficient of performance (COP). The performance of heat pumps however is known to vary widely for different seasons and for varying climate conditions. This study is part of an in-depth analysis of nZEB homes through the nZEB101 project funded by the Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (SEAI). In advance of undertaking a large-scale monitoring project, preliminary studies of nZEB technologies are being undertaken. This paper outlines a simplified method for calculation of the heat pump’s seasonal performance factor over six heating seasons in a modelled nZEB dwelling in Ireland using real hourly weather data. The study has found that while seasonal performance factor (SPF) values of 4.5 (as often claimed by manufacturers) are achievable, favourable operating conditions are required to achieve these high values. In a new building where underfloor heating and modern convective radiators are installed, the primary energy associated with the space heating is approximately 40% that of a natural gas boiler. The total CO2 emissions are also 47% less. However, in a retrofit nZEB building where existing radiators (which require higher outlet temperatures of approximately 65 ℃) are used, the difference in CO2 emissions from a heat pump and gas boiler is almost negligible in a nation where the grid’s emission factor is 437 gCO2/kwh (Irish electricity 2019). The potential for heat pumps can be improved further by decarbonising the grid and improving grid and plant production efficiencies.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 169.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 219.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 219.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

References

  1. ADEME: Energy Efficiency Trends and Policies in the Household and Tertiary Sectors. Ministry of Sustainable Development and the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME). ODYSSEE-MURE 2015:97

    Google Scholar 

  2. Fallon, N.: Towards Nearly Zero Energy Buildings in Ireland—Planning for 2020 and beyond. Department of Housing, Planning and Local Government. n.d.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Forsen, M., Nowack, T.: European Heat Pump Association. Outlook 2009 (2009)

    Google Scholar 

  4. Mackay, D.J.C.: Sustainable Energy—Without the hot air. UIT Cambridge (2008)

    Google Scholar 

  5. Huchtemann, K., Müller, D.: Simulation study on supply temperature optimization in domestic heat pump systems. Build. Environ. 59, 327–335 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2012.08.030

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Gupta, R., Irving, R.: Development and application of a domestic heat pump model for estimating CO2 emissions reductions from domestic space heating, hot water and potential cooling demand in the future. Energy Build. 60, 60–74 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2012.12.037

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. EN 14511-2: Air conditioners, liquid chilling packages and heat pumps for space heating and cooling and process chillers, with electrically driven compressors—part 2: test conditions. Comité Européen de Normalisation (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  8. EN 14511-4: Air conditioners, liquid chilling packages and heat pumps for space heating and cooling and process chillers, with electrically driven compressors—part 4: requirements. Comité Européen de Normalisation (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  9. Kelly, N.J., Cockroft, J.: Analysis of retrofit air source heat pump performance: results from detailed simulations and comparison to field trial data. Energy Build. 43, 239–245 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2010.09.018

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Huchtemann, K., Müller, D.: Evaluation of a field test with retrofit heat pumps. Build. Environ. 53, 100–106 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2012.01.013

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Sakellari, D., Lundqvist, P.: Modelling the Performance of a Domestic Low Temperature Heating System Based on a Heat Pump (2002)

    Google Scholar 

  12. Verhelst, C., Logist, F., Van Impe, J., Helsen, L.: Study of the optimal control problem formulation for modulating air-to-water heat pumps connected to a residential floor heating system. Energy Build. 45, 43–53 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2011.10.015

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Steiger, L., Buswell, R., Smedley, V., Firth, S., Rowley, P.: An Air Source Heat Pump Model for Operation in Cold Humid Environments. Loughborough University Institutional Repository (2010)

    Google Scholar 

  14. Nolting, L., Steiger, S., Praktiknjo, A.: Assessing the validity of European labels for energy efficiency of heat pumps. J. Build. Eng. (2018).https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobe.2018.02.013

  15. Met Éireann: The Irish Weather Service 2019. https://www.met.ie

  16. SEAI: Domestic Fuel Cost Comparison, October 2018. Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (2018)

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This project is supported by the Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland under Grant Agreement 18/RDD/358.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Richard O Hegarty .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2021 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

About this paper

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this paper

O Hegarty, R., Kinnane, O., Lennon, D., Colclough, S. (2021). The Performance Potential of Domestic Heat Pumps in a Temperate Oceanic Climate. In: Littlewood, J., Howlett, R.J., Jain, L.C. (eds) Sustainability in Energy and Buildings 2020. Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies, vol 203. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-8783-2_3

Download citation

Publish with us

Policies and ethics