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Embedding Multiple Modes of Representations in Open-Ended Tests on Learning Transition Elements

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Science Education in the 21st Century

Abstract

Past studies suggested writing incorporated with multiple modes of representations (MMR) were able to reduce students’ misconceptions and teaching using technological tools can promote the use of MMR in presenting the answers in open-ended tests. As such, in this study, a writing-to-learn (WTL) activities integrated with graphic organizers using the “Popplet” application was used to teach transition elements. Following the teaching, the degree of MMR embeddedness in the open-ended tests was measured. For this purpose, mixed method design was used to identify the ability of 81 pre-university students in embedding MMR.

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Correspondence to Nilavathi Balasundram .

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Appendices

Appendix 8.1: Lesson Plan

Week

Period/Lesson

Outline of lesson

Cognitive processes

Notes

1

3 and 4

Transition elements

13.1: Physical properties of first-row of transition elements

Objective:

(1) Define a transition element in terms of incomplete d-orbitals in at least one of its ions

Phase 1: Introduction (10 min)

(1) Teacher writes statements on the whiteboard and asks the students which one of the statements is correct. The statements are:

All transition elements are d-block elements

All transition elements are not d-block elements

(2) Students response to the question based on what they have learnt previously

(3) Students are introduced to transition elements and where they are located in periodic table

(4) Students are given few examples of transition elements surrounding them such as copper (can be found in electrical wiring), iron (can be found in school gate), zinc (can be found at school rooftop), chromium in stainless steel and titanium in alloy

(1) Explain in their own words about transition elements based on their previous knowledge

(2) Able to give more examples of transition elements

Students recall Hund’s rule, Aufbau principle, and Pauli exclusion principle

1

3 and 4

Phase 2: Activity (20 min)

(1) Students are given examples of transition elements (first-row transition elements) and required to write their electronic configuration

(2) Students compare the electronic configuration of transition elements with s-block elements such as Na and Ca (especially the valence electronic configuration)

(3) Students were guided by teacher to explain the definition of transition elements based on the electronic configuration

(4) Students finds out why scandium and zinc are not a transition element and discuss with teacher

(5) Students are required to use “Popplet” app to generate graphic organizer based on the lay out given by the teacher

(1) Students were required to write electronic configurations for transition elements

(2) Students do comparison of electronic configurations of transition element with Group 1 elements especially the valence electronic configurations

(3) Students able to reason why scandium and zinc are not transition elements

(4) Students in group generate graphic organizer using “Popplet” app

 
  

Phase 3: Class discussion (40 min)

(1) Three selected students presents their definition of transition elements in front of the class

(2) Teacher gives 10 min time for students to present their graphic organizers and comment given by teacher and other students

(3) Students discuss that scandium and zinc are not transition elements based on their electrons in d-orbital

(4) Discuss that copper is a transition element

(5) Students discuss the definition of transition elements and form the correct definition

(6) Students need to send the improved graphic organizer to teacher

(1) Students are required to present in front of the class

(2) Students discuss if there are further improvements need to be done on the graphic organizer and send the complete graphic organizer to teacher

(3) Students discuss that scandium and zinc are not transition elements and copper is a transition element

 
  

Phase 4: Summary (10  min)

(1) Students were asked to write in their logbook on what students have learnt today

(2) Teacher asked students again about the statements given at the beginning of the class and students answer teacher

(3) Provide problems related to the definition of transition element to do at home as homework

Multiple modes of representation involved:

(1) Diagram-arrangement of the electron in d-orbital

(2) Text-definition of transition element and explanation

(3) Notation-electronic configuration

(1) Students were required to write their logbook about the lesson today

(2) Students answer question for the statement which were given at the beginning of the lesson

(3) Students complete the problems given at home and check the answer with teacher later

 

Appendix 8.2: Multiple Modes Writing Task Embeddedness Inventory (MWTEI)

Student Name:_____________________________________________________

Writing Topics:__________________________________________________

Part One: Text Assessment

0 = No Evidence 1 = Some Evidence 2 = Present Throughout

No.

Criteria

Scores

1.

Assignment expectations

Covered required topics

 

Accuracy of science concepts

 

Completeness of meaning

 

2.

Audience considerations

Appropriate language

 

Identified key terms (Underline, Highlighted, Italics)

 

Total

/10

Part Two: General Alternative Modes Analysis

figure a

0 = No/None 1 = Attempted/Limited 2 = Complete/Entire

Criteria

Scores

Modes appropriate for audience

 

Key terms included in modes

 

Representations accurate

 

Modes linked to main concepts

 

Appropriate distribution of modes

 

Total

/10

Part Three: Individual Alternative Mode Analysis

(Repeat for each appropriate individual alternative mode)

1. Mode Type: Concept addressed:

(a) Embeddedness strategies (b) Characteristics

(0 = Not employed 1 = Utilized)

Caption

  

Accurate

 

Next to appropriate text

  

Necessary

 

Referred to in text

  

Conceptual connection to text

 

Explained in text

  

Mode is self-explanatory

 

Original

    

2. Mode Type: Concept addressed:

(a) Embeddedness strategies (b) Characteristics

(0 = Not employed 1 = Utilized)

Caption

  

Accurate

 

Next to appropriate text

  

Necessary

 

Referred to in text

  

Conceptual connection to text

 

Explained in text

  

Mode is self-explanatory

 

Original

    

3. Mode Type: Concept addressed:

(a) Embeddedness strategies (b) Characteristics

(0 = Not employed 1 = Utilized)

Caption

  

Accurate

 

Next to appropriate text

  

Necessary

 

Referred to in text

  

Conceptual connection to text

 

Explained in text

  

Mode is self-explanatory

 

Original

    

4. Mode Type: Concept addressed:

(a) Embeddedness strategies (b) Characteristics

(0 = Not employed 1 = Utilized)

Caption

  

Accurate

 

Next to appropriate text

  

Necessary

 

Referred to in text

  

Conceptual connection to text

 

Explained in text

  

Mode is self-explanatory

 

Original

    

5. Mode Type: Concept addressed:

(a) Embeddedness strategies (b) Characteristics

(0 = Not employed 1 = Utilized)

Caption

  

Accurate

 

Next to appropriate text

  

Necessary

 

Referred to in text

  

Conceptual connection to text

 

Explained in text

  

Mode is self-explanatory

 

Original

    

Appendix 8.3: Open-Ended Tests Sample Analysis For Text Assessment (Embedding Alternative Modes)

Analysis

Scores

Example of Student’s Response

(a) Assignment expectations

Post-test I: 2) Suggest a reason in terms of electronic configuration why fourth ionization energy of iron is higher than expected

figure b

Student gives the electronic configuration of Fe3+ ion. Then student explained fourth ionization energy. This followed by, explanation of consequences if the fourth electron has been removed.This shows student has covered required topics

2

Student give complete definition of fourth ionization energy of Fe3+. This shows accurate science concept

2

Student explain the consequences of removing electron from stable half-filled 3d5 orbitals with the support of diagram of electronic configuration. This shows completeness of meaning

2

(b) Audience consideration (overall)

Student use appropriate language that audience can understand

2

Student did not show any identified key terms

2

Total score

10

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Balasundram, N., Karpudewan, M. (2020). Embedding Multiple Modes of Representations in Open-Ended Tests on Learning Transition Elements. In: Teo, T.W., Tan, AL., Ong, Y.S. (eds) Science Education in the 21st Century. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-5155-0_8

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-5155-0_8

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