Advertisement

Muslim Youths’ Satisfaction Toward Muslim-Friendly Hotels: Examining the Effects of Hotel Image, Brand Image and Employee Performance

Chapter
  • 124 Downloads

Abstract

This paper aims to examine the effects of hotel image, brand image and employee performance on customer satisfaction of Muslim youths during their leisure stay in Muslim-friendly (MF) hotels in Malaysia. Self-administered questionnaires measuring hotel image, brand image, employee performance and customer satisfaction on a five-point Likert scale were distributed to 300 tourists in four prominent hotels in Kuala Terengganu. The data is then analyzed by multiple regression using SPSS software. The results indicated that hotel image and employee performance were found to be significant factors in predicting Muslim youth’s customer satisfaction of their hotel accommodation and hospitality services in MF hotels. However, brand image was found to be an insignificant predictor to their satisfaction. The sample of this study was limited to only Muslims, and mainly students. However, this does not suggest that students should be ignored in terms of their purchasing power and preference. Future studies may want to include other consumer segments and examine other MF hotels or hotels with similar concepts in countries interested to tap on the Muslim tourists, for example, Japan, China and Korea among others. Malaysia is known to be an MF destination among tourists from many parts of the world. By understanding Muslim consumers’ expectations, the performance of hotel employees and hotel image can be utilized by hotel operators worldwide to enhance their marketing strategies.

Keywords

Hotel image Brand image Employee performance Customer satisfaction Muslim youths Muslim-friendly hotels 

References

  1. Aaker DA (1996) Building strong brands: building, measuring, and managing brand equity. The Free Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. Abdul-Latif SA, Abdul-Talib AN (2017) Consumer racism: a scale modification. Asian Pac J Mark Log 29(3):616–633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Abdul-Latif SA, Abdul-Talib AN (2015a) An examination of the effects of consumer racism and consumer ethnocentrism on willingness to buy products associated with ethnic Chinese. Paper presented at the Australia New Zealand International Business Academy (ANZIBA) Conference, University of Melbourne, Australia, 11–13 Feb 2015Google Scholar
  4. Abdul-Latif SA, Abdul-Talib AN (2015b) Antecedents to willingness to Boycotts among Malaysian Muslims. Emerging research on Islamic marketing and tourism in the global economy. IGI Global, Hershey, Pennsylvania, pp 70–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Abdul-Talib AN, Adnan MMM (2017) Determinants of consumer’s willingness to boycott surrogate products. J Isl Mark 8(3):345–360Google Scholar
  6. Abdul-Talib AN, Abdul-Latif SA, Abd-Razak IS (2016) A study on the boycott motivations of Malaysian non-Muslims. J Isl Mark 7(3):264–287Google Scholar
  7. Abd-Rahman A, Asrarhaghighi E, Ab-Rahman S (2015) Consumers and Halal cosmetic products: knowledge, religiosity, attitude and intention. J Isl Mark 6(1):108–120.  https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00490177
  8. Aghekyan-Simonian M, Forsythe S, Suk Kwon W, Chattaraman V (2012) The role of product brand image and online store image on perceived risks and online purchase intentions for apparel. J Retail Consum Serv 19(3):325–331.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2012.03.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ali F, Amin M (2014) The influence of physical environment on emotions, customer satisfaction and behavioural intentions in Chinese resort hotel industry. J Glob Bus Adv 7(3):249–266.  https://doi.org/10.1504/JGBA.2014.064109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ali F, Omar R, Amin M (2013) An examination of the relationships between physical environment, perceived value, image and behavioural Intentions: a SEM approach towards Malaysian resort hotels. J Hotel Tour Manage 27(2):9–26Google Scholar
  11. Alserhan BA, Wood BP, Rutter R, Halkias D, Terzi H, Al-Serhan O (2018) The transparency of Islamic hotels: “Nice Islam” and the “self-orientalizing” of Muslims? Int J Tour Res 20(4):1–13.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jtr.2197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Amin M, Yahya Z, Ismayatim WFA, Nasharuddin SZ, Kassim E (2013) Service quality dimension and customer satisfaction: an empirical study in the Malaysian Hotel industry. Ser Mark Q 34(2):115–125.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15332969.2013.770665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Arizmendi A et al (2016) Global report on the power of youth travel. UNWTO, vol 13. Available via WYSE Travel. https://www.wysetc.org/research/reports/global-report-on-the-power-of-youth-travel-2016/. Accessed 7 Dec 2019
  14. Bakar ARA, Talib ANA, Hashim F (2014) Restoring service quality, satisfaction and loyalty in higher education institutions through market orientation. J Glob Bus Adv 7(1):88–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Battour M (2018) Muslim travel behavior in Halal tourism. In: Mobilities, tourism and travel behavior—contexts and boundaries. InTech. doi:10.5772/intechopen.70370Google Scholar
  16. Battour M, Ismail MN (2016) Halal tourism: concepts, practises, challenges and future. Tour Manage Perspect 19:150–154.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2015.12.008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Battour M, Ismail MN, Battor M (2011) The impact of destination attributes on Muslim tourist’s choice. Int J Tour Res 13(6):527–540.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jtr.824CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Battour M, Ismail MN, Battor M, Awais M (2014) Islamic tourism: an empirical examination of travel motivation and satisfaction in Malaysia. Curr Issues Tour 20(1):50–67.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2014.965665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Berry LL, Carbone LP (2007) Build loyalty through experience management. Qual Prog 40(9):26Google Scholar
  20. Berry LL, Wall EA, Carbone LP (2006) Service clues and customer assessment of the service experience: lessons from marketing. Acad Manage Perspect 20(2):43–57.  https://doi.org/10.5465/AMP.2006.20591004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Blanco J, Fitzgerald D, Jordan P, Egido L (2011) The power of youth travel. The world youth student and educational travel confederation. Available via UNWTO. https://www2.unwto.org/sites/all/files/pdf/amreports_vol2_thepowerofyouthtourism_eng_lw.pdf. Accessed 7 Dec 2019
  22. Briggs SR, Cheek JM (1986) The role of factor analysis in the development and evaluation of personality scales. J Perspect 54(1):106–148Google Scholar
  23. Census (2011) Population distribution and basic demographic characteristics 2010. Dept of Statistics, Malaysia. Available via DOSM. https://www.dosm.gov.my/v1/index.php?r=column/cthemeByCat&cat=117&bul_id=MDMxdHZjWTk1SjFzTzNkRXYzcVZjdz09&menu_id=L0pheU43NWJwRWVSZklWdzQ4TlhUUT09. Accessed 7 Dec 2019
  24. Chiang CF, Jang SS (2007) The Effects of perceived price and brand image on value and purchase intention: leisure travelers’ attitudes toward online hotel booking. J Hospitality Leis Mark 15(3):49–69.  https://doi.org/10.1300/j150v15n03CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Choi TY, Chu R (2001) Determinants of hotel guests’ satisfaction and repeat patronage in the Hong Kong hotel industry. Int J Hospitality Manage 20(3):277–297.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0278-4319(01)00006-8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Day RL (1984) Modeling choices among alternative responses to dissatisfaction. Adv Consum Res 11:469–499Google Scholar
  27. DeVillis RF (1991) Scale development. Theory and Applications. Applied social research methods series. Sage Publications, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  28. Faisal B (2015) Islamic tourism in Indonesia: Country profiles and case studies, UNWTO regional seminar on the contribution of Islamic culture and its impact on the Asian tourism market. Available via UNWTO. http://cf.cdn.unwto.org/sites/all/files/pdf/best_practice_indonesia.pdf. Accessed 15 Jan 2017
  29. Gould-Williams J (1999) The impact of employee performance cues on guest loyalty, perceived value and service quality. Ser Ind J 19(3):97–118.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02642069900000032CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Grönroos C (1984) A service quality model and its marketing implications. Euro J Mark 18(4):36–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Guttentag D (2015) Airbnb: disruptive innovation and the rise of an informal tourism accommodation sector. Curr Issues Tour 18(12):1192–1217.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2013.827159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Henderson JC (2010) Sharia-compliant hotels. Tour Hospitality Res 10(3):246–254.  https://doi.org/10.1057/thr.2010.3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Henderson JC (2016) Muslim travellers, tourism industry responses and the case of Japan. Tour Recreation Res 41(3):339–347.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02508281.2016.1215090CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Horak S, Weber S (2000) Youth tourism in Europe: problems and prospects. Tour Recreation Res 25(3):37–44. doi:10.1080/02508281.2000.11014923Google Scholar
  35. Ibrahim Y, Rashid A (2010) Homestay program and rural community development in Malaysia. J Rits Soc Sci Hum 1(2):7–24.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2013.08.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Isa SM, Chi P, Mohammad NU (2018) Muslim tourist perceived value: a study on Malaysia Halal tourism. J Is Mark 9(2):402–420Google Scholar
  37. Jones KC (1996) Employee performance Cues in a Hotel. J Bus Res 215:207–215Google Scholar
  38. Jusoff K, Ibrahim Z, Zahar MS, Sulaiman M, Othman Z (2009) Travelling pattern and preferences of the Arab tourists in Malaysian Hotels. Int J Bus Manage 4(7):3–9.  https://doi.org/10.5539/ijbm.v4n7p3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kandampully J, Hu HH (2007) Do hoteliers need to manage image to retain loyal customers? Int J Consum Hospitality Manage 19(6):435–443.  https://doi.org/10.1108/09596110710775101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kandampully J, Suhartanto D (2000) Customer loyalty in the hotel industry: the role of customer satisfaction and image. Int J Contemp Hospitality Manage 12(6):346–351.  https://doi.org/10.1108/09596110010342559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kandampully J, Suhartanto D (2003) The role of customer satisfaction and image in gaining customer loyalty in the hotel industry. J Hospitality Leis Mark 10(1/2):3–25.  https://doi.org/10.1300/J150v10n01_02CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Keller KL (1993) Conceptualizing, measuring, and managing customer-based brand equity. J Mark 57(1):1–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Khoo-Lattimore C, Yang ECL (2018) Asian youth tourism: contemporary trends, cases and issues. Asian Youth Travellers. Springer, Singapore, pp 1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kim HB, Kim WG (2005) The relationship between brand equity and firms’ performance in luxury hotels and chain restaurants. Tour Manage 26(4):549–560.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2004.03.010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kim SS, Im HH, King BEM (2015) Muslim travelers in Asia: the destination preferences and brand perceptions of Malaysian tourists. J Vac Mark 21(1):3–21.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1356766714549648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Krauss SE et al (2006) Exploring regional differences in religiosity among Muslim Youth in Malaysia. Rev Religious Res 47(3):238–253.  https://doi.org/10.1007/S13644-01CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lahap J, Ramli NS, Said NM, Radzi SM, Zain RA (2016) A study of brand image towards customer’s satisfaction in the Malaysian hotel industry. Procedia Soc Behav Sci 224:149–157.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.05.430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lewis RC (1987) The measurement of gaps in the quality of hotel services. Int J Hospitality Manage 6(2):83–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lien CH, Wen MJ, Huang LC, Wu KL (2015) Online hotel booking: the effects of brand image, price, trust and value on purchase intentions. Asia Pacific Manage Rev 20(4):210–218.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmrv.2015.03.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Lipka M (2017) Muslims and Islam: Key findings in the U.S. and around the world. Available via Pew Research. http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/08/09/muslims-and-islam-key-findings-in-the-u-s-and-around-the-world/. Accessed 4 July 2018
  51. Liu C (2018) The motivations and experiences of young chinese self-drive tourists abstract. Asian youth travellers. Springer, Singapore, pp 117–134Google Scholar
  52. Lovelock CH (1985) Developing and managing the customer-service function in the service sector. In: The service encounter: managing employee customer interaction in service business. Lexington Books, Lexington, MAGoogle Scholar
  53. Malaysia Department of Statistics (2018) Demographic statistics First Quarter (Q1) 2018, Malaysia. Available via DOSM. https://www.dosm.gov.my/v1/index.php?r=column/cthemeByCat&cat=430&bul_id=azJaVlY0RjVKWkwwaURWTENxMVBhdz09&menu_id=L0pheU43NWJwRWVSZklWdzQ4TlhUUT09. Accessed 17 July 2018
  54. Malaysia Department of Statistics (2019) Domestic Tourism Survey 2018. Available via DOSM. https://www.dosm.gov.my/v1/index.php?r=column/cthemeByCat&cat=320&bul_id=cUJybTRyNWZYd05qY2xlSmJFQXhYdz09&menu_id=b0pIV1E3RW40VWRTUkZocEhyZ1pLUT09. Accessed 27 May 2020
  55. Manhas PS, Tukamushaba EK (2015) Understanding service experience and its impact on brand image in hospitality sector. Int J Hospitality Manage 45:77–87.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2014.11.010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Martinez E, Polo Y, Chernatony LD (2008) Effect of brand extension strategies on brand image: a comparative study of the UK and Spanish markets. Int Mark Rev 25(1):107–137.  https://doi.org/10.1108/02651330810851908CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. MasterCard-CrescentRating (2016a) Global Muslim travel index 2016. Available via Crescentrating. https://www.crescentrating.com/reports/mastercard-crescentrating-global-muslim-travel-index-gmti-2016.html. Accessed 7 Dec 2019
  58. MasterCard-CrescentRating (2016b) Muslim business traveler insights 2016. Available via Newsroom. https://newsroom.mastercard.com/asia-pacific/files/2016/10/Report-Mastercard-CrescentRating-Muslim-Business-Traveler-Insights-2016.pdf. Accessed 7 Dec 2019
  59. MasterCard-CrescentRating (2018) Global Muslim travel index 2018. Available via Crescentrating. https://www.crescentrating.com/reports/mastercard-crescentrating-global-muslim-travel-index-gmti-2018.html. Accessed 7 Dec 2019
  60. MasterCard & HalalTrip (2017) Muslim millennial travel report 2017. Available via Halaltip. https://www.halaltrip.com/halal-travel/muslim-millennial-travel-report/. Accessed 7 Dec 2019
  61. Mattila AS, O’Neill JW (2003) Relationships between hotel room pricing, occupancy, and guest satisfaction: a longitudinal case of a Midscale Hotel in the United States. J Hospitality Tour Res 27(3):328–341.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1096348003252361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Mey LP, Akbar AK, Fie DYG (2006) Measuring service quality and customer satisfaction of the hotels in Malaysia: Malaysian, Asian and Non-Asian hotel guests. J Hospitality Tour Manage 13(2):144–160.  https://doi.org/10.1375/jhtm.13.2.144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Mohsin A, Ramli N, Alkhulayfi BA (2016) Halal tourism: emerging opportunities. Tour Manage Perspect 19:137–143.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2015.12.010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Noel J (2010) Hotel brand loyalty dives. Available via Chicago Tribune. http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2010-11-16/travel/sc-trav-1116-business-class-20101116_1_brand-loyalty-travel-forecast-business-class. Accessed 10 June 2016
  65. NST (2018a) Terengganu to promote Muslim-oriented tourism, says MB. Available cia NST. https://www.nst.com.my/news/nation/2018/05/373268/terengganu-promote-muslim-oriented-tourism-says-mb. Accessed 7 Dec 2019
  66. NST (2018b) Tourism assets are revenue earners for Terengganu. Available via NST. https://www.nst.com.my/news/nation/2018/05/373268/terengganu-promote-muslim-oriented-tourism-says-mb. Accessed 7 Dec 2019
  67. Nunnally JC, Bernstein IH (1994) Psychometric theory (3) McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  68. O’Neill JW, Mattil AS (2004) Hotel branding strategy: its relationship to guest satisfaction and room revenue. J Hospitality Tour Res 28(2):156–165.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1096348004264081CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Oh H, Parks SC (1997) Customer satisfaction and service quality: a critical review of the literature and research implications for the hospitality. Hospitality Res J 20:35–64Google Scholar
  70. Oliver RL (1997) Satisfaction: a behavioral perspective on the consumer. Irwin-McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  71. Oskam J, Boswijk A (2016) Airbnb: the future of networked hospitality businesses. J Tour Future 2(1):22–42.  https://doi.org/10.1108/JTF-11-2015-0048CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Pallant J (2010) SPSS survival manual: a step by step guide to data analysis using SPSS. Open University Press, McGraw Hill, Berkshire, EnglandGoogle Scholar
  73. Parasuraman A, Zeithaml VA, Berry LL (1985) A conceptual model of service quality and its implications for future research. J Mark 49(4):41–50.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1251430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Poon WC, Low KLT (2005) Are travellers satisfied with Malaysian hotels? Int J Contemp Hospitality Manage 17(3):217–227.  https://doi.org/10.1108/09596110510591909CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Qawasmeh R (2016) Role of the brand image of boutique hotel for customers choosing accommodation, “LE CHATEAU LAMBOUSA” case study, North Cyprus. J Hotel Bus Manage 5(2):1–10.  https://doi.org/10.4172/2169-0286.1000147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Reuland R, Choudry J, Fagel A (1985) Research in the field of hospitality. Int J Hospitality Manage 4(4):141–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Samori Z, Sabtu N (2014) Developing Halal standard for Malaysian hotel industry: an exploratory study. Procedia Soc Behav Sci 121:44–157.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.01.1116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Suandi TB (1991) Commitment of 4-B [Malaysia] youth leaders towards volunteerism. Dissertation. The Ohio State UniversityGoogle Scholar
  79. Tabachnick BG, Fidell LS (2007) Using multivariate statistics. PsycCRITIQUES. Pearson Education, Boston, MAGoogle Scholar
  80. Wang YC, Luo CC, Tai YF (2017) Implementation of delightful services: from the perspective of frontline service employees. J Hospitality Tour Manage 31:90–104.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhtm.2016.10.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Zakaria N, Abdul-Talib AN (2010) Applying Islamic market-oriented cultural model to sensitize strategies towards global customers, competitors, and environment. J Is Mark 1(1):51–56Google Scholar
  82. Zeithaml VA, Berry LL, Parasuraman A (1996) The behavioral consequences of service quality. J Mark, 31–46Google Scholar
  83. Zhang JJ, Mao Z (2012) Image of all hotel scales on travel blogs: its impact on customer loyalty. J Hospitality Mark Manage 21(2):113–131.  https://doi.org/10.1080/19368623.2011.615017CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.International Islamic University MalaysiaPagoh, MuarMalaysia

Personalised recommendations