Skip to main content

Human Evolution and the Implication of Resilience for the Future

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Resilience and Human History

Part of the book series: Translational Systems Sciences ((TSS,volume 23))

Abstract

The first human ancestors appeared about 7 million years ago (Mya) in Africa and finally evolved into Homo sapiens, developing human uniqueness. This includes bipedal walking, using various tools, and was accompanied by brain expansion that led to sophisticated cognitive abilities. Previously, such uniqueness acted as resilience to survive in harsh environments and finally permitted humans to invent agriculture, civilization, and the industrial revolution, which meant that we can now enjoy comfortable lives. However, recently, civilization has become a monstrous “desire-satisfaction system” and has begun to squeeze various resources from present and past environments. This means that we are carelessly spending almost all our resources without leaving any to our descendants. We all know that we have to minimize our economies and conserve our natural environments, but the “desire-satisfaction system” is so attractive that we cannot yet escape it. Thus, we should reconsider the true implication of our resilience. Namely, at present, the most necessary resilience is rational prevision and the courageous sympathy to do something altruistic for the future, before a crisis occurs.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or eBook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 99.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 129.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 129.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Aiello, L. C., & Dean, C. (1990). An introduction to human evolutionary anatomy. Cambridge: Academic.

    Google Scholar 

  • Aiello, L. C., & Wheeler, P. (1995). The expensive tissue hypothesis: The brain and the digestive system in human and primate evolution. Current Anthropology, 36, 199–221.

    Google Scholar 

  • Akazawa, T., & Aikens, C. M. (1986). Prehistoric hunter-gatherers in Japan: New research methods. Bulletin of The University Museum, University of Tokyo, 27, 73–89.

    Google Scholar 

  • Aziz, F., & Baba, H. (Eds.). (2013). Homo erectus in Indonesia: Recent progress of the study and current understanding (Special publication). Bandung: Centre for Geological Survey.

    Google Scholar 

  • Baba, H. (2014). A short review on the origin and migration of modern humans (Homo sapiens). Genes and Environment, 36, 95–98.

    Google Scholar 

  • Baba, H., Aziz, F., Kaifu, Y., et al. (2003). Homo erectus calvarium from the Pleistocene of Java. Science, 299, 1384–1388.

    Google Scholar 

  • Begun, D. R. (2016). The planet of the apes. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bellwood, P. S. (2005). The first farmers: Origins of agricultural societies. Malden: Wiley-Blackwell.

    Google Scholar 

  • Boesh, C., Bole, C., Eckhardt, N., & Boesh, H. (2010). Altruism in forest chimpanzee: The case of adoption. PLoS One, 5(1), e8901.

    Google Scholar 

  • Boyd, R., & Silk, J. B. (2009). How humans evolved. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brown, P., Sutikna, T., Morwood, M., et al. (2004). A new small-bodied hominin from the Late Pleistocene of Flores, Indonesia. Nature, 341, 1055–1065.

    Google Scholar 

  • Carrier, D. R., Kapoor, A. K., Kimura, T., et al. (1984). The energetic paradox of human running and hominid evolution. Current Anthropology, 25, 483–495.

    Google Scholar 

  • Carson, R. (1962). Silent spring. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cook, M. (2005). A brief history of the human race. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.

    Google Scholar 

  • Davidson-Hunt, J., & Berkes, F. (2000). Environment and society through the lens of resilience: Toward a human-in-ecosystem perspective. In International association for the study of common property conference, Indian University.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dawkins, R. (1989). The selfish gene. Oxford: Oxford Landmark Science.

    Google Scholar 

  • Deacon, T. W. (1997). The symbolic species: The co-evolution of language and the brain. New York: W. W. Norton& Company.

    Google Scholar 

  • Diamond, J. (1991). The third chimpanzee. New York: John Brockman Associates.

    Google Scholar 

  • Diamond, J. (1997). Guns, germs, and steel: The fates of human societies. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.

    Google Scholar 

  • Diamond, J. (2005). Collapse: How societies choose to fail or succeed. New York: Viking Penguin, Penguin Group (USA).

    Google Scholar 

  • Diamond, J. (2012). The world until yesterday: What can we learn from traditional society. New York: Viking Penguin, Penguin Group (USA).

    Google Scholar 

  • Dunbar, R. I. M. (1992). Neocortex size as a constraint on group size in primates. Journal of Human Evolution, 22, 469–4893.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dunbar, R. I. M. (1998). The social brain hypothesis. Evolutionary Anthropology, 6, 178–190.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ehrick, P. R., & Ehrick, A. (2008). The dominant animal. Washington, DC: Island Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ehrick, P. R., & Ehrick, A. (2013). Can a collapse of global civilization be avoided? The Royal Society Publishing, Proceedings of Biological Science, 280, 1–9.

    Google Scholar 

  • Erdal, D., Whiten, A., Boehm, C., & Knauft, B. (1994). On human egalitarianism: An evolutionary product of Machiavellian status escalation? Current Anthropology, 35, 175–183.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fagan, B. (2004). The long summer: How climate changed civilization. New York: Basic Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fleagle, J. G. (1988). Primate adaptation & evolution. New York: Academic.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fox, T., Pope, M., & Ellis, E. C. (2017). Engineering the anthropocene: Scalable social networks and resilience building in human evolutionary timescales. The Anthropocene Review, 4, 199–215.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gabnia, L., Vekua, A., Lordkipanidze, D., et al. (2000). Earliest Pleistocene human cranial remains from Dmanisi, Republic of Georgia: Taxonomy, geological setting, and age. Science, 288, 1019–1025.

    Google Scholar 

  • Henshilwood, C. S., d’Errico, F., & Watts, I. (2009). Engraved ochres from the middle stone age levels at Blombos Cave, South Africa. Journal of Human Evolution, 57, 27–47.

    Google Scholar 

  • Japan for Sustainability. (2003, March). Japan’s sustainable society in the Edo period (1603-1867). JFS Newsletter No. 7.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kaifu, Y., Baba, H., Sutikna, T., et al. (2011). Cranial morphology of Homo floresiensis: Description, taxonomic affinities, and evolutionary implication. Journal of Human Evolution, 61, 644–682.

    Google Scholar 

  • Klein, R. G. (2009). The human career: Human biological and cultural origins. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Klein, R. G., & Edgar, B. (2002). The Dawn of human culture. New York: Nevaumont Publishing Company.

    Google Scholar 

  • Leakey, M. D., & Harris, J. M. (1987). Laetoli: A Pleistocene site in Northern Tanzania. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lordkipanedze, D., Vekua, A., Ferring, R., et al. (2005). The earliest toothless hominin skull. Nature, 434, 717–718.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lovejoy, O. C. (1988). Evolution of human walking. Scientific American, 259, 82–89.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lovejoy, O. C. (2009). Reexamining human origins in the light of Ardipithecus ramidus. Science, 326, 74e1–74e8.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lovejoy, O. C., Simpson, S. W., White, T. D., et al. (2009). Careful climbing in the Miocene: The forelimbs of Ardipithecus ramidus and humans are primitive. Science, 326, 70e1–70e8.

    Google Scholar 

  • Meadows, D. H., Meadows, D. L., Randers, J., & Behrens, W. W., III. (1972). The limits to growth. New York: Potomac Associates/Universe Book.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mithen, S. (1996). The prehistory of the mind: A search for the origins of art, religion and science. London: Thames and Hudson Ltd.

    Google Scholar 

  • Morwood, M. J., Brown, P., Sutikna, T., et al. (2005). Further evidence for the small-bodied hominin from the Late Pleistocene of Flores, Indonesia. Nature, 437, 1012–1017.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mukherjee, S. (2016). The gene: An intimate history. London: The Wylie Agency.

    Google Scholar 

  • National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo. (2009). The environment on the Japanese Island. Tokyo: National Museum of Nature and Science.

    Google Scholar 

  • National Science Museum, Tokyo. (2006). The history of life on earth: Human beings in coexistence with nature. Tokyo: National Science Museum.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ochiai, E. (2007). Japan in the Edo period: Global implications of a model of sustainability. The Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus, 2007, 5–2.

    Google Scholar 

  • Oppenheimer, S. (2004). Out of Eden: The peopling of the world. London: Constable & Robinson Ltd.

    Google Scholar 

  • Paabo, S. (2014). Neanderthal man. In Search of lost genomes. New York: Brockman.

    Google Scholar 

  • Randers, J. (2012). 2052: A global forecast for the next forty years: A report to the club of Rome: Commemorating the 40th anniversary of the limits to growth. White River Junction: Chelsea Green Publishing Co.

    Google Scholar 

  • Reich, D. (2018). Who we are and how we got here. Ancient DNA and the new science of the human past. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Roberts, A. (2009). The incredible human journey. London: Bloomsbury Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  • Roberts, A. (2011). Evolution: The human story. London: Dorling Kindersley Limited/A Penguin Random House Company.

    Google Scholar 

  • Solecki, R. S. (1971). The first flower people. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stringer, C., & Andrews, P. (1988). Genetic and fossil evidence for the origin of modern humans. Science, 239, 1263–1268.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stringer, C., & Andrews, P. (2005). The complete world of human evolution. London: Thames and Hudson Ltd.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stringer, C., & Mckie, R. (1996). African exodos. The origins of modern humanity. New York: Brockman.

    Google Scholar 

  • Suwa, G., Kono, R. T., Simpson, S. W., et al. (2009). Paleobiological implications of the Ardipithecus ramidus dentition. Science, 326, 94–99.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tanner, J. (1998). Human growth and development. In S. Jones, R. Martin, & D. Pilbeam (Eds.), The Cambridge encyclopedia of human evolution (pp. 98–105). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Trinkaus, E. (1983). The Shanidar Neanderthals. London: Academic.

    Google Scholar 

  • White, T. D., Asfaw, B., Beyene, Y., et al. (2009). Ardipithecus ramidus and the paleobiology of early hominids. Science, 326, 75–86.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wisniewski, J. B. (2015). A comment on the concept of desire satisfaction and the Mises-Hayek dehomogenization debate. Ekonomia-Wroclaw Economic Review, 21, 63–68.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wood, B. (2005). Human evolution: A very short introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Hisao Baba .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2020 Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

About this chapter

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Baba, H. (2020). Human Evolution and the Implication of Resilience for the Future. In: Nara, Y., Inamura, T. (eds) Resilience and Human History. Translational Systems Sciences, vol 23. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-4091-2_4

Download citation

Publish with us

Policies and ethics