Skip to main content

Decentralized Stormwater Management: Experiences with Various Measures in Germany

  • 299 Accesses

Abstract

The focus of the paper is on experience with different measures of decentralized stormwater management and their scientific evaluation in Hamburg, Germany. These measures—green roofs and tree pits with a focus on stormwater infiltration—are explained by indicating technical details, impact, acceptance and economic benefit. These two types are especially relevant to integration in a stormwater concept in a dense urban context and combine the requirements for a blue-green infrastructure. Continuous, long-term programs for measuring green roof rainfall runoff have been created on the HafenCity University building and on three apartment buildings. It has been demonstrated that green roofs can retain significant amounts of rainwater throughout the year (> 50%) and in this way have a positive effect on the urban water cycle. For single, short, heavy precipitation events, the study could not completely determine what amount of rainwater can be retained in rainfall events with differing amounts and thus the exact contribution they can make to urban stormwater management. The data indicates that the runoff retention by green roofs is dependent on several technical and especially on climatic values and that even with identical technical equipment it is hard to generalize about the retention effects. In particular, meteorological conditions shortly before a rain event seem to play a very important role when estimating the retention amount for individual rain events. Finally, details of tree pits for stormwater infiltration and the long-term monitoring of hydrological functionality, the soil’s water regime, water supply and tree vitality are introduced.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-981-15-3507-9_9
  • Chapter length: 13 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   119.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-981-15-3507-9
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   159.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   159.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 1

(Source © Authors)

Fig. 2

(Source © Authors)

Fig. 3

(Source © Zinco GmbH, modified by authors)

Fig. 4

(Source © Optigrün international AG, Zinco GmbH, modified by authors)

Fig. 5

(Source © Authors)

Fig. 6

(Source © Authors)

Fig. 7

(Source © Authors)

Fig. 8

(Source © Biber 2016)

References

  • Bengtsson L, Grahn L, Olsson J (2002) Hydrological function of a thin extensive green roof in southern Sweden. Nord Hydrol 36(3):259–268

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Berndtsson JC (2010) Green roof performance towards management of runoff water quantity and quality: a review. Ecol Eng 36(4):351–360

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Biber C (2016) Advanced urban trees. How street trees can be part of the solution. An advanced system of urban tree pits to be included in decentralized stormwater management. Master thesis, HafenCity University Hamburg

    Google Scholar 

  • Brenneisen S (2003) The benefits of biodiversity from green roofs: key design consequences. In: Conference proceedings: greening rooftops for sustainable communities, Chicago, pp 323–329

    Google Scholar 

  • Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Naturschutz, Bau und Reaktorsicherheit (BMUB, editor) (2015) Grün in der Stadt – Für eine lebenswerte Zukunft (Green in the city—for a livable future). BMUB, Berlin (in German)

    Google Scholar 

  • Currie B, Bass B (2008) Estimates of air pollution mitigation with green plants and green roofs using the UFORE model. Urban Ecosyst 11(4):409–422

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Dunnett N, Nagase A, Hallam A (2008) The dynamics of planted and colonising species on a green roof over six growing seasons 2001–2006: influence of substrate depth. Urban Ecosyst 11(4):373–384

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Fang C (2008) Evaluating the thermal reduction effect of plant layers on rooftops. Energy Build 40(6):1048–1052

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Forschungsgesellschaft Landschaftsentwicklung Landschaftsbau (FLL) (2018) Guidelines for the planning, construction and maintenance of green roofing. https://shop.fll.de/de/bauwerksbegruenung.html. Accessed 15 Oct 2019

  • Gedge D, Kadas G (2005) Green roofs and biodiversity. Biologist 52(3):161–169

    Google Scholar 

  • Getter K, Rowe D, Andresen J (2007) Quantifying the effect of slope on extensive green roof stormwater retention. Ecol Eng 31(4):225–231

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Graceson A, Hare M, Monaghan J, Hall N (2013) The water retention capabilities of growing media for green roofs. Ecol Eng 61:328–334

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hoyer J, Dickhaut W, Kronawitter L, Weber B (2011) Water sensitive urban design – principles and inspirations for sustainable stormwater management in the city of the future. Jovis, Berlin

    Google Scholar 

  • Kruse E, Biber C, Dickhaut W (2019) Straßenbäume als Komponente der Überflutungs- und Hitzevorsorge in Städten (Street trees as prevention tools against flooding and heat in cities) (in German). https://stadtundgruen.de/artikel/strassenbaeume-als-komponente-der-ueberflutungs-und-hitzevorsorge-in-staedten-10881.html. Accessed 15 Oct 2019

  • Mentens J, Raes D, Hermy M (2006) Green roofs as a tool for solving the rainwater runoff problem in the urbanized 21st century? Landsc Urban Plan 77(3):217–226

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Razzaghmanesh M, Beecham S (2014) The hydrological behaviour of extensive and intensive green roofs in a dry climate. Sci Total Environ 499:284–296

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Richter M (2015) Urban climate change-related effects on extreme heat events in Rostock, Germany. Urban Ecosyst 19(2):846–866

    Google Scholar 

  • Richter M, Dickhaut W (2016) Evaluation of green roof hydrologic performance for rainwater runoff management in Hamburg. In: SBE16 conference proceedings. http://www.zebau.de/unsere-projekte/sbe16-hamburg/sbe16-hamburg-in-retrospect/. Accessed 15 Oct 2019

  • Roloff A (2013) Bäume in der Stadt: Besonderheiten, Funktion, Nutzen, Arten, Risiken Trees in the city: specifics, functions, uses, species and risks). Ulmer UTB, Stuttgart (in German)

    Google Scholar 

  • Speak A, Rothwell J, Lindley S, Smith C (2013) Rainwater runoff retention on an aged intensive green roof. Sci Total Environ 461–462:28–38

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Takebayashi H, Moriyama M (2007) Surface heat budget on green roof and high reflection roof for mitigation of urban heat island. Build Environ 42(8):2971–2979

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Van Renterghem T, Bottledooren D (2009) Reducing the acoustical façade load from road traffic with green roofs. Build Environ 44(5):1081–1087

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Van Woert ND, Rowe DB, Andresen JA, Rugh CL, Fernandez RT, Xiao L (2005) Green roof stormwater retention. J Environ Qual 34(3):1036–1044

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Yang J, Yu Q, Gong P (2008) Quantifying air pollution removal by green roofs in Chicago. Atmos Environ 42(31):7266–7273

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Wolfgang Dickhaut .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2020 Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

About this chapter

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Dickhaut, W., Richter, M. (2020). Decentralized Stormwater Management: Experiences with Various Measures in Germany. In: Wang, F., Prominski, M. (eds) Water-Related Urbanization and Locality. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-3507-9_9

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-3507-9_9

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Singapore

  • Print ISBN: 978-981-15-3506-2

  • Online ISBN: 978-981-15-3507-9

  • eBook Packages: Social SciencesSocial Sciences (R0)