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Contemporary World Perspectives on Nonkilling Peace

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Abstract

A contemporary world perspective that deals with direct forms of killings perpetrated by the state and nonstate actors is probed here. The problems of homicide, suicide, ecocide, war and war crimes, death penalty, terrorism, mass killing and genocide in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries have been highlighted as a hindrance to the establishment of nonkilling peace.

Fanaticism is a retarding element creating hatred and anger, and causing people to fight each other, and making them unsympathetic.

Swami Vivekananda (Vivekananda, Swami, 1896. Karma Yoga, Chapter 5: We Help Ourselves Not the World. Available from: https://www.thoughtco.com/top-free-ebooks-by-swami-vivekananda-1770693.)

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Graph 6.1

Notes

  1. 1.

    Tagore, Rabindranath, 1915. Sadhana, The Realization of Life.

  2. 2.

    Ibid.

  3. 3.

    England, D.C. 2018. Homicide: Murder and Manslaughter Available from: https://www.criminaldefenselawyer.com/resources/murder-and-homicide.htm (1 September 2018).

  4. 4.

    World Health Organization, Available from: http://www.who.int/gho/mental_health/suicide_rates/en/.

  5. 5.

    Lindsay Lee, Max Roser and Esteban Ortiz-Ospina, 2017, “Suicide”, Available from: https://ourworldindata.org/suicide.

  6. 6.

    World Population Review, 2017, Crude Suicide Rates by Country 2018, Available from: http://worldpopulationreview.com/countries/suicide-rate-by-country/.

  7. 7.

    Moseley, Alexander, (n.d.) The Philosophy of War, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ISSN 2161-0002, Available from: http://www.iep.utm.edu/war/. (3 February 2018).

  8. 8.

    Roser, M. 2016. ‘War and Peace’. Published online at OurWorldInData.org. Retrieved from: https://ourworldindata.org/war-and-peace (10 December 2017).

  9. 9.

    Mewett, Christopher, 2014, Understanding War’s Enduring Nature Alongside Its Changing Character, Available from: https://warontherocks.com/2014/01/understanding-wars-enduring-nature-alongside-its-changing-character/ (2 June 2018).

  10. 10.

    Goodman, Paul 2017. The 8 Main Reasons for War, Owlocation, Available from: https://owlcation.com/social-sciences/The-Main-Reasons-For-War (30 January 2018).

  11. 11.

    McNair, R. (2012). Psychology of Nonkilling. In J. Pim, & D. Christie, Nonkilling Psychology. Honolulu: Center for Global Nonkilling.

  12. 12.

    Salzaman, M. 2012. Dehumanization as a Prerequisite of Atrocity and Killing. In J. Pim, & D. Christie, Nonkilling Psychology. Honolulu: Center for Global Nonkilling.

  13. 13.

    Ibid., p. 118.

  14. 14.

    McNair, R. 2012. Psychology of Nonkilling. In J. Pim, & D. Christie, Nonkilling Psychology. Honolulu: Center for Global Nonkilling.

  15. 15.

    BBC 2014, Ethics Guide, War Crimes, Available from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/war/overview/crimes_1.shtml. (10 December 2017).

  16. 16.

    International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), 12 August 1949. Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War (Third Geneva Convention), 75 UNTS 135. Available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b36c8.html [accessed 13 February 2018].

  17. 17.

    International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), 12 August 1949. Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War (Fourth Geneva Convention), 75 UNTS 287. Available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b36d2.html [accessed 13 February 2018].

  18. 18.

    Barbey, Christophe, 2013, Nonmilitarisation and Countries without Armies, in “Nonkilling Security and the State”, ed. Joám Evans Pim, Honolulu, Center for Global Nonkilling.

  19. 19.

    Swarup, Anoop, The Nonkilling Paradigm-For Peace is War Really Necessary? New Delhi, Shobhit University.

  20. 20.

    Dickens, Charles, 2007, Oliver Twist, New Delhi, UBS Publishers’ Distributors Pvt. Ltd.

  21. 21.

    Hardy, Thomas, 2007, The Mayor of Casterbridge, UBS Publishers’ Distributors Pvt. Ltd.

  22. 22.

    Dostoevsky, Fyodor, 1866, Crime and Punishment, New York, Bantam Classic.

  23. 23.

    Sandler, Todd, 2015, Terrorism and counterterrorism: an overview, Oxford Economic Papers, Volume 67, Issue 1, Pages 1–20, Available from: https://doi.org/10.1093/oep/gpu039.

  24. 24.

    Lindner, Evelin, 2017, Honor, Humiliation and Terror, World Dignity University Press, Lake Oswego, Available from: www.humiliationstudies.org/whoweare/evelin/book/05.php.

  25. 25.

    Ibid., p. 156.

  26. 26.

    Ibid.

  27. 27.

    Orwell, George, 1944, Animal Farm, Available from: https://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/o/orwell/george/o79a/.

  28. 28.

    Lindner, Evelin, 2017, Honor, Humiliation and Terror, World Dignity University Press, Lake Oswego. pp. 159.

  29. 29.

    Marek, P. 2007. Why the Peaceful Majority is Irrelevant, Arutz Sheva, Available from: https://www.israelnationalnews.com/Articles/Article.aspx/6996 (21 January 2018).

  30. 30.

    International Committee of the Red Cross, Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, 9 December 1948, Available from: https://ihl-databases.icrc.org/ihl/INTRO/357?OpenDocument (9 December 2017).

  31. 31.

    Levene, Mark, 2000, Why Is the Twentieth Century the Century of Genocide? University of Hawai’i, Press Journal of World History, Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 305–336.

  32. 32.

    The History Place, 2000, Genocide in the twentieth Century, Available from: http://www.historyplace.com/worldhistory/genocide/index.html (12 March 2018).

  33. 33.

    Conversi, Daniele, 2006, ‘Genocide, Ethnic Cleansing and Nationalism’, The Sage Handbook of Nations and Nationalism, ed. G. Delanty & Krishan Kumar, Sage Publications, pp. 320–333.

  34. 34.

    Ibid., pp. 326.

  35. 35.

    Ibid., pp. 327.

  36. 36.

    Lindner, Evelin, 2000, The Psychology of Humiliation: Somalia, Rwanda/Burundi, and Hitler’s Germany, PhD Thesis, University of Oslo, Available from: http://www.humiliationstudies.org/documents/evelin/DissertationPsychology.pdf.

  37. 37.

    Lindner, Evelin, 2009, Emotions and Conflict, Praegar Publishers, London.

  38. 38.

    Haddock, Sharon M., 1995, Holocaust: Those Who Defied Orders To Kill Jews Did Not Die, Researcher Says At BYU, Deseret News, Available from: https://www.deseretnews.com/article/408671/HOLOCAUST--THOSE-WHO-DEFIED-ORDERS-TO-KILL-JEWS-DID-NOT-DIE-RESEARCHER-SAYS-AT-BYU.html (10 December 2017).

  39. 39.

    Amnesty International, 2016. Death penalty 2015: Facts and figures, Available from: https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2016/04/death-penalty-2015-facts-and-figures/ (10 December 2017).

  40. 40.

    Ibid.

  41. 41.

    Death Penalty Information Center, 2017, The Death Penalty: An International Perspective, Available from: https://deathpenaltyinfo.org/death-penalty-international-perspective.

  42. 42.

    BBC, 2014, Ethics Guide, Arguments in favour of capital punishment, Available from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/capitalpunishment/for_1.shtml (11 December 2017).

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Correspondence to Katyayani Singh .

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Singh, K., Swarup, A. (2020). Contemporary World Perspectives on Nonkilling Peace. In: The Nonkilling Paradigm. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-1247-6_6

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