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Contemporary World: Coercive Power and Leadership

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Abstract

Despite the brutal results of power conflicts, nations still constantly engage themselves in it. Important leaders throughout the world, particularly from the twentieth century who exercised coercive powers to bring change in the society, are studied in this chapter. An effort is made to study not only the impact of their policies and how far they were successful in achieving them but also the psychology behind the choice of their actions. The leaders studied here are Adolf Hitler, Vladimir Lenin, Mao Tse Tung, Fidel Castro and Ernesto Guevara.

Violence produces only something resembling justice, but it distances people from the possibility of living justly, without violence (Sohail, K. 2013. Prophets of Violence, Prophets of Peace, Leo Tolstoy—And the Path of Love and Peace, Ontario, Green Zone Publishing)

Leo Tolstoy

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Notes

  1. 1.

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  3. 3.

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  4. 4.

    House, Robert J. 1976. A 1976 Theory of Charismatic Leadership, Working Paper Series 76-06, University of Toronto.

  5. 5.

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  6. 6.

    Lloyd, Sharon A. and Sreedhar, Susanne, 2014. “Hobbes’s Moral and Political Philosophy“, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Edward N. Zalta (ed.). URL: https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2014/entries/hobbes-moral/.

  7. 7.

    Hitler, Adolf, 1925. Mein Kampf, Mumbai, Jaico Publishing House, p. 58.

  8. 8.

    Ibid, p. 93.

  9. 9.

    Ibid, p. 133.

  10. 10.

    Ibid, p. 181.

  11. 11.

    Ibid, p. 227.

  12. 12.

    United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, “The Reichstag Fire”, Holocaust Encyclopedia, Available from: https://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007657 (20 February 2015).

  13. 13.

    Bardakjian, Kevork 1985. Hitler and the Armenian Genocide, Armenian National Institute, Available from: http://www.armenian-genocide.org/hitler.html (7 May 2017). (The text above is part of the English version of the German document handed to Louis P. Lochner in Berlin.).

  14. 14.

    Lindner, Evelin 2000. The Psychology of Humiliation: Somalia, Rwanda/Burundi, and Hitler’s Germany, p. 29, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Oslo, Available from: http://www.humiliationstudies.org/documents/evelin/DissertationPsychology.pdf.

  15. 15.

    Hyland, P, Boduszek, D & Kielkiewicz, K. 2011. A Psycho-Historical Analysis of Adolf Hitler: The Role of Personality, Psychopathology, and Development, Psychology & Society, Volume 4 (2), 58–63.

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    Biography.com Editors (n.d.) Mao Tse-tung Biography, The Biography.com website, Available from: http://www.biography.com/people/mao-tse-tung-9398142 (22 February 2017).

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    Watkins (n.d.) Thayer, The Long March of the Communist Party of China, San Jose State University, Available from: http://www.sjsu.edu/faculty/watkins/longmarch.htm (22 February 2017).

  18. 18.

    Zhisui, Li 1996. The Private Life of Chairman Mao, Toronto, Random House of Canada Limited, p. xix.

  19. 19.

    Ibid, p. 122.

  20. 20.

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  21. 21.

    Ibid, p. 638.

  22. 22.

    Hall, Eleanor (2005). Dispelling the myth of Mao: Jung Chang sheds new light on the Communist leader, The World Today, Available from: http://www.abc.net.au/worldtoday/content/2005/s1419468.htm (18 February 2017).

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    Jacques Seurre, « Jacques Andrieu, Psychologie de Mao Tsé-toung (The Psychology of Mao Tse-Tung) », China Perspectives [Online], 50 | November–December 2003. Online since 20 April 2007, connection on 20 February 2017. URL: http://chinaperspectives.revues.org/784 (Translated from the French original by Peter Brown).

  24. 24.

    Fairbank, John K., 1968. “A Psycho History of Mao Tse Tung”, Chicago Tribune, 20 October, page 5. Available from: http://archives.chicagotribune.com/1968/10/20/page/340/article/a-psycho-history-of-mao-tse-tung (20 February 2017).

  25. 25.

    Gewerts, Ken 2003. Harvard News Office, Available from: http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2003/12/mao-under-a-microscope/ (20 February 2017).

  26. 26.

    Coltman, Leycester 2013. The Real Fidel Castro, London, Thistle Publishing.

  27. 27.

    Ibid, p. 32.

  28. 28.

    Ibid, p. 193.

  29. 29.

    Ibid, p. 336.

  30. 30.

    Fagen, Richard R. 1965. Charismatic Authority and the Leadership of Fidel Castro, The Western Political Quarterly, Vol. 18, No. 2, Part 1, pp. 275–284.

  31. 31.

    Pedraza, Silvia 1998. Cuba’s Revolution and Exodus, The Journal of the International Institute, Vol. 5, Issue 2, Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/2027/spo.4750978.0005.204 (29 April 2017).

  32. 32.

    Goldman, David (2016). Fidel Castro‘s Mass Murder by the Numbers, Pjmedia, Available from: https://pjmedia.com/spengler/2016/11/28/fidel-castros-mass-murder-by-the-numbers/ (29 April 2017).

  33. 33.

    Psychiatric Staff, Central Intelligence Agency (1961). Psychiatric Personality Study of Fidel Castro, Available from: https://catalog.archives.gov/id/7065385 (24 May 2018).

  34. 34.

    Paz, Juan Valdés, 2011. The Cuban Agrarian Revolution: Achievements and challenges, Estudos Avançados 25 (72).

  35. 35.

    Guevara, Ernesto Che, 1965. Farewell letter from Che to Fidel Castro, Available from: https://www.marxists.org/archive/guevara/1965/04/01.htm (23 June 2018).

  36. 36.

    Cawthorne, Nigel, 2014. Che Guevara: The Last Conquistador, Endeavour Press.

  37. 37.

    Ibid, p. 5.

  38. 38.

    Stamm, Justin, 2017. Was Che Guevara a Hero or Murderer? The Epoch Times, 13 April. Available from: http://www.theepochtimes.com/n3/2242312-was-che-guevara-a-hero-or-murderer/ (1 May 2017).

  39. 39.

    Service, Robert, 2011. Lenin: A Biography, ‘Path to Revolution’, Pan Macmillan Limited, London.

  40. 40.

    Ibid, chapter: Introduction.

  41. 41.

    See footnote 40.

  42. 42.

    Almagor, Raphael, 1991. Foundations of Violence, Terror and War in the Writings of Marx, Engels, and Lenin, Terrorism and Political Violence, Vol. 3, No. 2 (1991), pp. 1–24.

  43. 43.

    Ibid, pp. 12–13.

  44. 44.

    Haven, Cynthia, 2010. Stalin killed millions. A Stanford historian answers the question, was it genocide? Available from: http://news.stanford.edu/2010/09/23/naimark-stalin-genocide-092310/ (4 May 2017).

  45. 45.

    Akbar, Arifa, 2010. “Mao’s Great Leap Forward ‘killed 45 million in four years’” Independent, 17 September, Available from: https://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/news/maos-great-leap-forward-killed-45-million-in-four-years-2081630.html (7 May 2017).

  46. 46.

    White, Matthew, 2001, Free Republic, Available from: http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/547066/posts (9 May 2017).

  47. 47.

    Stanton, Gregory H., 1998. Available from: http://www.cubaverdad.net/genocide.htm (15 May 2017).

  48. 48.

    United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. “The Final Solution”: Overview, Available from: https://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005151 (7 May 2017).

  49. 49.

    Bose, Sisir Kumar, 2016. Subhas and Sarat: An Intimate Memoir of the Bose Brothers, New Delhi, Aleph Book Company, p. 26.

  50. 50.

    Celly, Ashok, 2007. Bhagat Singh, Bose and the Mahatma, Mainstream Weekly, VOL XLV, No 31. Available from: https://mainstreamweekly.net/article231.html.

  51. 51.

    Lindner, Evelin, 2000. The Psychology of Humiliation: Somalia, Rwanda/Burundi, and Hitler’s Germany, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Oslo, Available from: http://www.humiliationstudies.org/documents/evelin/DissertationPsychology.pdf (4 October 2017).

  52. 52.

    Gilligan, James, 2011. Why Some Politicians Are More Dangerous Than Others, Polity Press.

  53. 53.

    Ibid, p. 74.

  54. 54.

    Ibid, p. 76.

  55. 55.

    Lindner, 2000. The Psychology of Humiliation: Somalia, Rwanda/Burundi, and Hitler’s Germany. PhD Thesis. Oslo: University of Oslo.

  56. 56.

    Ibid, p. 22.

  57. 57.

    Ibid, p. 25.

  58. 58.

    Ibid, p. 60.

  59. 59.

    See An African Watch Report, 1990, “Somalia A Government at War With Its Own People”, USA, Available from: https://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/somalia_1990.pdf.

  60. 60.

    Ardila, R. 2012. Nature and Nurture. In D. Christie, & J. E. Pim,, Nonkilling Psychology (pp. 71–84). Honolulu: Center for Global Nonkilling.

  61. 61.

    Bailey, Dan, 2013, Available from: http://smellslikescience.com/the-psychology-of-killing-and-the-origins-of-war/ (21 May 2016).

  62. 62.

    Ibid.

  63. 63.

    Salzman, M. B. 2012. Dehumanization as a Prerequisite of Atrocity and Killing. In D. Christie, & J. E. Pim, Nonkilling Psychology (pp. 107–124). Honolulu: Center for Global Nonkilling.

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Singh, K., Swarup, A. (2020). Contemporary World: Coercive Power and Leadership. In: The Nonkilling Paradigm. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-1247-6_3

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