Histopathology of Cardiovascular System
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The cardiovascular system (CVS) includes both the heart, i.e. endocardium, myocardium and pericardium, and vessels. Biopsies from these organs are relatively uncommon, and most cases actually originate from autopsies. Disease spectrum ranges from ‘inflammatory’, ‘ischaemic’ and ‘degenerative’ with a handful of primary and metastatic neoplasms involving the heart. Various distinct types of vasculopathies are also sometimes seen in clinical practice. In this chapter, morphological features on light microscopy and utility of special and immunohistochemical (IHC) stains, which are helpful in the workup of these lesions, are described in a compact fashion.