Histopathology of Urinary System
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This chapter addresses in sufficient detail, the light microscopic features of ‘primary glomerulopathies’ and utility of ‘special stains’ as well as ‘immunofluorescence (IF)’ for precise categorization of these common lesions mostly autoimmune in nature. Renal allograft biopsies are also routine in centres where renal transplantation is done. These biopsies do require meticulous morphological scrutiny as many at times changes are subtle and easily overlooked. Ancillary testing may be necessary in some cases. Neoplasms of kidney and urinary bladder are also common in any general surgical pathology service. In recent years several new renal tumor entities are described and included. An attempt is made to not only provide salient diagnostic features and immunophenotype of common neoplastic entities but also of new entries along with non-neoplastic lesions which may affect these organs.