Histopathology of Central Nervous System (CNS) and Skeletal Muscle
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Neuropathology in recent years has seen an unprecedented shift in the way brain tumours particularly glial neoplasms are diagnosed and classified. This exercise is now heavily dependent upon ‘mutational analyses’ by molecular techniques as well as by immunohistochemical stains as surrogate markers. This chapter therefore is relatively more comprehensive to incorporate all new developments and criteria for diagnosis in a step-by-step fashion in close association with clinical history and radiologic findings. Non-neoplastic pathology seen in this region is no less challenging and requires special expertise and experience. Skeletal muscle biopsy interpretation is another highly specialized area for workup and precise categorization of various types of myopathies. More often than not, it also requires ‘enzyme histochemistry’ on fresh muscle biopsy specimens along with immunohistochemical workup on formalin-fixed biopsies.