Histopathology of Male Genital Tract (Testis and Prostate)
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The male genital tract (MGT) primarily includes the testis, epididymis and prostate. Small testicular biopsies are usually sent for assessment of male infertility, while orchiectomy specimens are submitted mostly for neoplastic lesions. An overwhelming majority of testicular tumours are ‘germ cell tumours’ mostly arising in infants, children and young adults. Sex cord-stromal tumours are rare. Recognition and precise diagnosis of germ cell tumours particularly in the metastatic setting are of utmost importance as, with current available treatment options, most of them are curable even with distant metastases. Hence special stains and immunohistochemical stains are frequently used for precise categorization. On the other hand, prostatic biopsies particularly needle core biopsies from various quadrants of the prostate are distinctly more common in patients with high suspicion of malignancy like persistently high PSA. These biopsies pose a different kind of challenge, i.e. on one hand to be wary of close mimickers and on the other hand well abreast with grading criteria as per Gleason’s grading guidelines which quite reliably predict aggressiveness of disease, chances of regional lymph node metastases and management options at hand. In this chapter, hence, focus is on these two areas providing a quick reference for diagnostic criteria and any ancillary testing which may be of help.