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Abstract

Pulp and paper industry effluent is constantly associated with degraded and dissolved lignin (≈90%) which creates a serious pollution and toxic effects due to its less biodegradability and high concentration of colour. Hence, lignin in pulp and paper mill effluent is essentially treated prior to its final discharge into the environment. Many physicochemical treatment methods such as electrocoagulation, incineration, ozonation and ultrafiltration are available to handle the lignin waste in black liquor. However, usage of these methods is limited in small- and medium-scale industries due to large minerals, acids and energy consumption which make the technology unsatisfactory. Therefore, there is a need for more practical and economically viable method for treatment of lignin in black liquor especially for small-scale industries. Microbial treatment can be a more suitable and viable technique. In microbial treatment, a wide variety of microbes such as fungi, algae and bacteria have been implicated for lignin biodegradation and decolourization of pulping effluent. Hence, lignin biodegradation by potential indigenous ligninolytic strains could be more suitable due to their biochemical versatility and immense environmental adaptability. This chapter describes introduction to pulp and paper industry effluent, different existing treatment methods and issues and biodegradation of lignin-rich effluent by indigenous ligninolytic microbes.

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Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Science and Engineering Research Board (DST), Govt. of India for allowing the authors to use the project (ECR/2016/000435) related information to make this chapter.

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Correspondence to J. Anandkumar .

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Baghel, S., Sahariah, B.P., Anandkumar, J. (2020). Bioremediation of Lignin-Rich Pulp and Paper Industry Effluent. In: Shah, M., Banerjee, A. (eds) Combined Application of Physico-Chemical & Microbiological Processes for Industrial Effluent Treatment Plant. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-0497-6_12

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