Methods and Approaches for Measuring the Impact of Trade Agreements on Public Health
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This chapter reviews key research methods used to interrogate trade and health relationships organised under seven categories: ‘Big Trade’ studies that rely on large data sets; country case studies which dig deeper into specific trade-related pathways; natural experiments which compare health outcomes between matched countries following new liberalisation measures; health impact assessments which use findings from multiple studies to suggest how trade measures are likely to affect health; economic impact assessments which estimate aggregate welfare gains (income, gross domestic product); qualitative comparative analysis which examines how liberalisation interacts with different public policies to affect health outcomes; and legal research that focuses on specific treaty provisions and dispute panel decisions. The strengths and limitations of each type of study design are discussed with examples from the published literature.
KeywordsTrade and health research Quantitative methods Case study design Health impact assessments Qualitative comparative analysis
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