Modelling Aspects for Adaptation of Alternative Fuels in IC Engines

  • Hardikk Valera
  • Dhananjay Kumar
  • Akhilendra Pratap Singh
  • Avinash Kumar AgarwalEmail author
Part of the Energy, Environment, and Sustainability book series (ENENSU)


Deteriorating environment and stricter emission norms are motivating researchers for finding sustainable transport solutions. Researchers are focusing on two approaches namely adaptation of alternative fuels, and exhaust gas after-treatment. Utilization of alternate fuels such as methanol, ethanol, and biodiesel etc. in internal combustion (IC) engines reduces inherent chemical components present in conventional fossil fuels. These chemical species are a major source of harmful pollutants such as particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), PM bound trace metals, etc. Advancement in after-treatment technologies such as optimization of hexagonal cells of substrate, use of noble metals, etc. are also effective in reducing pollutants from engine tail-pipe. However, developments for adaptation of these technologies in existing engines is a challenging task. For adaptation of any alternative fuel, engine components need to be modified according to fuel properties. However, optimization of design parameters of thousands of engine components is a tedious task, which cannot be done experimentally. This can be done easily using modelling techniques, in which a prototype engine can be developed to investigate the effect of engine design parameters and fuel properties on the engine performance and emission characteristics. In last few years, 1-D and 3-D simulation tools have been extensively explored for engine design and performance optimization. This chapter discusses basic modelling techniques, which can be used for engine research. This chapter also presents heat transfer models, which are important for in-cylinder combustion analysis. Few fluid-flow models have also been discussed in this chapter, which are mainly used for in-cylinder air-flow investigations, fuel flow in the fuel injection system, etc. Overall, this chapter discusses modelling aspects related to engine design so that alternative fuels can be adapted.


Transportation sector Engines Modelling 1-D modelling 3-D modelling 


  1. Statistics by International Energy Agency.
  2. Knothe G (2010) Biodiesel and renewable diesel: a comparison. Prog Energy Combust Sci 36(3):364–373. Scholar
  3. Agarwal AK (1998) Vegetable oils versus diesel fuel: development and use of biodiesel in a compression ignition engine. Tide 8(3):191–204Google Scholar
  4. Agarwal AK, Das LM (2001) Biodiesel development and characterization for use as a fuel in compression ignition engines. J Eng Gas Turbines Power 123(2):440–447. Scholar
  5. Urja A (2013) Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Government of India, New Delhi, vol 7(1)Google Scholar
  6. Converge Software.
  7. Hariram V, Bharathwaaj R (2016) Application of zero-dimensional thermodynamic model for predicting combustion parameters of CI engine fuelled with biodiesel-diesel blends. Alexandria Eng J 55(4):3345–3354. Scholar
  8. Payri F, Olmeda P, Martín J, García A (2011) A complete 0D thermodynamic predictive model for direct injection diesel engines. Appl Energy 88(12):4632–4641. Scholar
  9. Neshat E, Honnery D, Saray RK (2017) Multi-zone model for diesel engine simulation based on chemical kinetics mechanism. Appl Therm Eng 121:351–360. Scholar
  10. Engine Performance Manual.
  11. Heywood JB (1988) Internal combustion engine fundamentalsGoogle Scholar
  12. Gamma Technologies. The standard in multi-physics system.
  13. Kmec JF, Kassebaum DA, Noerenberg RL (2009) First-time experience with engine simulation software in an internal combustion engines course. College of Technology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, 47907Google Scholar
  14. da Silva Trindade WR, dos Santos RG (2018) 1D modeling of SI engine using n-butanol as fuel: adjust of fuel properties and comparison between measurements and simulation. Energy Convers Manag 157:224–238. Scholar
  15. Chougule VP, Vora KC, Suryavanshi Y (2013) Design and Simulation of 2.5 L Dual Fuel (Diesel-CNG) Engine for Performance Parameters (No. 2013-01-2885). SAE Technical Paper.
  16. Mtui PL (2013) Performance and emissions modeling of natural gas dual fuelling of large diesel engines. Int J Sci Technol Res 2(11):317–323Google Scholar
  17. Jadhav AA, Hulwan DB (2017) Simulation of dual fuel (Diesel-CNG) engine of off road vehicle. Simulation 1(3)Google Scholar
  18. Soid S, Amir S, Ismail M, Hamid M, Amzari M, Said M (2015). Simulation studies on the performance of small engine fuelled by methane and the effect of various valve timings. Indian J Sci Technol 8.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hardikk Valera
    • 1
  • Dhananjay Kumar
    • 1
  • Akhilendra Pratap Singh
    • 1
  • Avinash Kumar Agarwal
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Engine Research Laboratory, Department of Mechanical EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology KanpurKanpurIndia

Personalised recommendations