Advertisement

The Hidden Side of Co-Creation in a Complex Multi-Stakeholder Environment: When Self-Organization Fails and Emergence Overtakes

  • Harri JalonenEmail author
  • Alisa Puustinen
  • Harri Raisio
Chapter
Part of the Translational Systems Sciences book series (TSS, volume 22)

Abstract

Co-creation is typically defined as a mode of collaborative action, which is based on the complex combination of both top-down designing and bottom-up organizing from service beneficiaries. As a practice, co-creation is seen in an affirmative light. It is seen to provide a solution for many service planning, delivery and implementation problems faced by governments and public service organizations. However, in addition to improvement of means of providing public services, co-creation also introduces many challenges. Using the concepts of self-organization and emergence this conceptual chapter explores the hidden side of co-creation, i.e. situations which may produce unforeseen and undesirable consequences. The chapter contributes to both public service research and complexity sciences by introducing a framework which describes how ideal co-creation might turn into participative diversion, pop-up participation or even unintended co-destruction.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This paper was created in conjunction with the Co-creation of Service Innovation in Europe (CoSIE) project. The project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme H2020-SC6-COCREATION-2017 under grant agreement No 770492. www.cosie-project.eu

References

  1. Aasen, T. M. B. (2009). Innovation as social processes. A participative study of the Statoil R & D program Subsea Increased Oil Recovery (SIOR). Oslo: Norwegian University of Science and Technology.Google Scholar
  2. Ansell, C., & Geyer, R. (2017). ‘Pragmatic complexity’ a new foundation for moving beyond ‘evidence-based policy making’? Policy Studies, 38(2), 149–167.Google Scholar
  3. Argyris, C. (1999). On organizational learning (2nd ed.). Oxford: Blackwell Business.Google Scholar
  4. Arnstein, S. R. (1969). A ladder of citizen participation. Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 35(4), 216–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ashby, W. R. (1956). An introduction to cybernetics. London: Chapman & Hall.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bella, D. A. (1997). Organized complexity in human affairs: The tobacco industry. Journal of Business Ethics, 16, 977–999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bella, D. A. (2006). Emergence and evil. Emergence: Complexity and Organization, 8(2), 102–115.Google Scholar
  8. Bella, D. A., King, J. B., & Kailin, D. (2003). The dark side of organizations and a method to reveal it. Emergence: Complexity and Organization, 5(3), 66–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Blitz, D. (1992). Emergent evolution: Qualitative novelty and the levels of reality. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Boonstra, B., & Boelens, L. (2011). Self-organization in urban development: Towards a new perspective on spatial planning. Urban Research & Practice, 4(2), 99–122.Google Scholar
  11. Böse, M., Busch, B., & Sesic, M. D. (2006). Despite and beyond cultural policy: Third and fourth sector practices and strategies. In U. H. Meinhof & A. Triandafyllidou (Eds.), Transcultural Europe: Cultural policy in a changing Europe (pp. 131–156). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bouckaert, G., & Halligan, J. (2008). Managing performance: International comparisons. New York: Routledge, Taylor and Francis.Google Scholar
  13. Bourgon, J. (2009). New directions in public administration: Serving beyond the predictable. Public Policy and Administration, 24(3), 309–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bovaird, T. (2007). Beyond engagement and participation: User and community coproduction of public services. Public Administration Review, 67(5), 846–860.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brandsen, T., & Pestoff, V. (2006). Co-production, the third sector and the delivery of public services. Public Management Review, 8(4), 493–501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brandsen, T., Steen, T., & Verschuere, B. (Eds.). (2018). Co-production and co-creation. Engaging citizens in public services. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  17. Cairney, P. (2012). Complexity theory in political science and public policy. Political Studies Review, 10, 346–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Christensen, T., & Lægreid, P. (2011). Complexity and hybrid public administration—Theoretical and empirical challenges. Public Organization Review, 11, 407–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cilliers, P. (2005). Knowledge, limits and boundaries. Futures, 37, 605–613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Daviter, F. (2017). Coping, taming or solving: Alternative approaches to the governance of wicked problems. Policy Studies, 38(6), 571–588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. De Vries, P. (2010). Handboek Ouders in de School. Amersfoort: CPS.Google Scholar
  22. Faehnle, M., Mäenpää, P., Blomberg, J., & Schulman, H. (2017). Civic engagement 3.0—Reconsidering the roles of citizens in city-making. Yhteiskuntasuunnittelu, 55, 3.Google Scholar
  23. Fox, C., Jalonen, H., Baines, S., Bassi, A., Marsh, C., Moretti, V., & Willoughby, M. (2019). Co-creation of public service innovation—Something old, something new, something borrowed, something tech (Reports from Turku University of Applied Sciences 259). Turku: Turku University of Applied Sciences.Google Scholar
  24. Friedman, L. H., King, J. B., & Bella, D. A. (2007, July–August). Ending the blame game. Seeing systems in health care organizations. The Physician Executive, 2007, 20–29.Google Scholar
  25. Fung, A. (2015). Putting the public back into governance: The challenges of citizen participation and its future. Public Administration Review, 75(4), 513–522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gebauer, H., Johnson, M., & Enquist, B. (2010). Value co-creation as a determinant for success in public transport services: A study of the Swiss federal railway operator (SBB). Managing Service Quality, 20(6), 511–530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gerrits, L., & Marks, P. (2015). How the complexity sciences can inform public administration: An assessment. Public Administration, 93(2), 539–546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Geyer, R. (2012). Can complexity move UK policy beyond ‘evidence-based policy making’ and the ‘audit culture’? Applying a ‘complexity cascade’ to education and health policy. Political Studies, 60, 20–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Goldstein, J. (1999). Emergence as a construct: History and issues. Emergence: Complexity and Organization, 1(1), 49–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Grönlund, H. (2016). Vapaaehtoistoiminta vuonna 2025 [Volunteering in 2025]. In E. Innola (Ed.), Kohti kattavampaa varautumista [Towards more comprehensive preparedness] (pp. 57–61). Helsinki: The Security Committee.Google Scholar
  31. Hazy, J. K., Goldstein, J. A., & Lichtenstein, B. B. (2007). Complex systems leadership theory new perspectives from complexity science on social and organizational effectiveness. Mansfield: ISCE Publishing.Google Scholar
  32. Hood, C. C. (1991). A public management for all seasons? Public Administration, 69(3), 3–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hurlbert, M., & Gupta, J. (2015, June). The split ladder of participation: A diagnostic, strategic, and evaluation tool to assess when participation is necessary. Environmental Science & Policy, 50, 100–113.Google Scholar
  34. Jalonen, H., & Juntunen, P. (2011). Enabling innovation in complex welfare service systems. Journal of Service Science and Management, 4(4), 401–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Jamieson, D., Wilson, R., & Martin, M. (2019). The (im)possibilities of open data. Public Money and Management, 39(5), 364–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Johannessen, S. O. (2018). Strategies, leadership and complexity in crisis and emergency operations. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  37. Johanson, J.-E., & Vakkuri, J. (2017). Governing hybrid organisations. Exploring diversity of institutional life. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. King, J., Down, J. T., & Bella, D. A. (2002). Learning to think on circles. Journal of Management Inquiry, 11(2), 161–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Klijn, E.-H., & Koppenjan, J. (2012). Governance network theory: Past, present and future. Policy & Politics, 40(4), 587–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kotus, J., & Sowada, T. (2017). Behavioural model of collaborative urban management: Extending the concept of Arnstein’s ladder. Cities, 65, 78–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lee Jenni, G. D. L., Peterson, M. N., & Katz, J. (2015). Military perspectives on public relations related to environmental issues. Journal of Public Relations, 27(4), 353–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lember, V., Brandsen, T., & Tõnurist, P. (2019). The potential impacts of digital technologies on co-production and co-creation. Public Management Review.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14719037.2019.1619807.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Linstead, S., Maréchal, G., & Griffin, R. W. (2014). Theorizing and researching the dark side of organization. Organization Studies, 35(2), 165–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lorenz, D. F., Schulze, K., & Voss, M. (2018). Emerging citizen responses to disasters in Germany. Disaster myths as an impediment for a collaboration of unaffiliated responders and professional rescue forces. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, 26(3), 358–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mäenpää, P., & Faehnle, M. (2017). Civic activism as a resource for cities. Helsinki Quarterly, 1, 68–81.Google Scholar
  46. Mäenpää, P., & Faehnle, M. (2018). Urban civic activism: Solutions for the governance of a self-organising urban community. Helsinki Quarterly, 2, 38–45.Google Scholar
  47. Mäenpää, P., Faehnle, M., & Schulman, H. (2017). Kaupunkiaktivismi, jakamistalous ja neljäs sektori [Civic activism, sharing economy and the fourth sector]. In P. Bäcklund, J. Häkli, & H. Schulman (Eds.), Kansalaiset kaupunkia kehittämässä [Citizens developing the city] (pp. 239–259). Tampere: Tampere University Press.Google Scholar
  48. March, J. G. (1991). Exploration and exploitation in organizational learning. Organization Science, 2(1), 71–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. McLennan, B., Whittaker, J., & Handmer, J. (2016). The changing landscape of disaster volunteering: Opportunities, responses and gaps in Australia. Natural Hazards, 84(3), 2031–2048.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Mintzberg, H. (1979). The structuring of organizations. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  51. Mitleton-Kelly, E. (2003). Ten principles of complexity and enabling infrastructures. In E. Mitleton-Kelly (Ed.), Complex systems and evolutionary perspectives on organizations: The application of complexity theory to organizations (pp. 23–50). New York: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  52. Morçöl, G. (2012). A complexity theory for public policy. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  53. Murphy, J., Rhodes, M. L., Meek, J. W., & Denyer, D. (2017). Managing the entanglement: Complexity leadership in public sector systems. Public Administration Review, 77(5), 692–704.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Osborne, S. (2018). From public service-dominant logic to public service logic: Are public service organizations capable of co-production and value co-creation. Public Administration Review, 20(2), 225–231.Google Scholar
  55. Osborne, S., & Strokosch, K. (2013). It takes two to tango? Understanding the co-production of public services by integrating the services management and public administration perspectives. British Journal of Management, 24, 531–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Parker, G., Lynn, T., & Wargent, M. (2015). Sticking to the script? The co-production of neighbourhood planning in England. Town Planning Review, 86(5), 519–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Polanska, D. V. (2018). Going against institutionalization: New forms of urban activism in Poland. Journal of Urban Affairs. Published online.  https://doi.org/10.1080/07352166.2017.1422982CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Raisio, H., Puustinen, A., & Vartiainen, P. (2018). The concept of wicked problems: Improving the understanding of managing problem wickedness in health and social care. In W. Thomas, A. Hujala, S. Laulainen, & R. McMurray (Eds.), The management of wicked problems in health and social care (pp. 3–20). London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Raisio, H., Puustinen, A., Norri-Sederholm, T., & Jalava, J. (2019). “Those who agree to play on our terms will be taken in”: A qualitative study of the perceptions of public authorities and NGO representatives regarding self-organizing fourth-sector activity. Public Administration Quarterly, 43(3), 4–44.Google Scholar
  60. Rantanen, A., & Faehnle, M. (2017). Self-organisation challenging institutional planning: Towards a new urban research and planning paradigm—A Finnish review. The Finnish Journal of Urban Studies, 55, 3.Google Scholar
  61. Rask, M., Mačiukaitė-Žvinienė, S., Tauginienė, L., Dikčius, V., Matschoss, K., Aarrevaara, T., & d’Andrea, L. (2018). Public participation, science and society: Tools for dynamic and responsible governance of research and innovation. New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Richardson, K. A. (2008). Managing complex organizations: Complexity thinking and the science and art of management. Emergence, Complexity and Organization, 10(2), 13–26.Google Scholar
  63. Rittel, H., & Webber, M. (1973). Dilemmas in a general theory of planning. Policy Sciences, 4(2), 155–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Rock, J., McGuire, M., & Rogers, A. (2018). Multidisciplinary perspectives on co-creation. Science Communication, 40(4), 541–552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Sakellariou, A. (2018). Rapid evidence appraisal of the current state of co-creation in ten European countries (Reports from Turku University of Applied Sciences 251). Turku.Google Scholar
  66. Stacey, R. D. (2007). Strategic management and organisational dynamics: The challenge of complexity to ways of thinking about organisations. London: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  67. Stacey, R. (2010). Complexity and organizational realities: Uncertainty and the need to rethink management after the collapse of investment capitalism. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  68. Steen, T., Brandsen, T., & Verschuere, B. (2018). The dark side of co-creation and co-production of co-production and co-creation. In T. Brandsen, T. Steen, & B. Verschuere (Eds.), Co-production and co-creation. Engaging citizens in public services (pp. 284–293). London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Torfing, J., Sørensen, E., & Røiseland, A. (2016). Transforming the public sector into an Arena for co-creation: Barriers, drivers, benefits, and ways forward. Administration & Society.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0095399716680057.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Tritter, J. Q., & McCallum, A. (2006). The snakes and ladders of user involvement: Moving beyond Arnstein. Health Policy, 76(2), 156–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Uhl-Bien, M., & Arena, M. (2017). Complexity leadership: Enabling people and organization for adaptability. Organizational Dynamics, 46, 9–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Uhl-Bien, M., & Arena, M. (2018). Leadership for organizational adaptability: A theoretical synthesis and integrative framework. The Leadership Quarterly, 29(1), 89–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Vargo, S., & Lusch, R. (2004). Evolving to a new dominant logic for marketing. Journal of Marketing, 68(1), 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Verschuere, B., Vanleene, D., Steen, T., & Brandsen, T. (2018). Democratic co-production: Concepts and determinants. In T. Brandsen, T. Steen, & B. Verschuere (Eds.), Co-production and co-creation. Engaging citizens in public services (pp. 243–251). London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Virta, S., & Branders, M. (2016). Legitimate security? Understanding the contingencies of security and deliberation. The British Journal of Criminology, 56(6), 1146–1164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Voorberg, W. H., Bekkers, V., & Tummers, L. G. (2015). A systematic review of co-creation and co-production: Embarking on the social innovation journey. Public Management Review, 17(9), 1333–1357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Voorberg, W. H., Bekkers, V., Fleming, A., Timeus, K., Tonurist, P., & Tummers, L. J. (2017). Does co-creation impact public service delivery? Public Money & Management, 37(5), 365–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Williams, B. N., Kang, S.-C., & Johnson, J. (2015). (Co)-contamination as the dark side of co-production: Public value failures in co-production processes. Public Management Review, 18(5), 692–717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Turku University of Applied SciencesTurkuFinland
  2. 2.Emergency Services Academy FinlandKuopioFinland
  3. 3.University of VaasaVaasaFinland

Personalised recommendations