Advertisement

Governance, Accountability and Autonomy in Higher Education in Hong Kong

  • Ka Ho MokEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Higher Education in Asia: Quality, Excellence and Governance book series (HEAQEG)

Abstract

Governments in Asia have exerted serious efforts and concentrated resources on helping a few select universities to improve their global standing. These efforts have resulted in the gradual growth of Asian universities and their steady high rankings in various university league tables. At present, universities are being encouraged to collaborate with the industry or business sector and to engage with the community to promote innovation, knowledge transfer and entrepreneurship. In view of the intensifying competition for global university rankings, in 2014 the government of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) started a critical review of university governance through the University Grants Committee (UGC)—an advisory body formed to oversee the strategic directions and macro-policies that govern higher education development in Hong Kong—in order to enhance the global competitiveness of its publicly funded universities. An independent task force led by Sir Howard Newby, former Vice Chancellor of the University of Liverpool in the UK, completed a comprehensive review in 2015.

Notes

Acknowledgements

Part of the material of this chapter, especially the discussion relating to the major development trends of HE in the Asia-Pacific region and university rankings, is revised and adapted from the author’s recent working paper for the Centre for Global Higher Education, UCL Institute of Education.

References

  1. Altbach, P. G. (2010). The state of the rankings. Inside Higher Education. Retrieved from www.insidehighered.com/views/2010/11/11/altbach.
  2. Altbach, P. G. (2015). The costs and benefits of world-class universities. International Higher Education, 33, 5–8.Google Scholar
  3. Ansell, C., & Gash, A. (2008). Collaborative governance in theory and practice. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 18(4), 543–571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Calderon, A. (2012). Massification continues to transform higher education. Retrieved from http://www.universityworldnews.com/article.php?story=20120831155341147.
  5. Chan, W. C. (2015). Higher education and graduate employment in China: Challenges for sustainable development. Higher Education Policy, 28(1), 35–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chan, S. J., & Mok, K. H. (2016). After massification and response to internationalization: Quality assurance of higher education in Taiwan and Hong Kong. In D. Neubauer, J. Hawkins, M. Lee, & C. Collins (Eds.), Handbook of Asian higher education (pp. 423–438). New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  7. Cheng, Y., Wang, Q., & Liu, N. C. (Eds.). (2014). How world-class universities affect global higher education: Influences and implications. Rotterdam: Sense.Google Scholar
  8. Collins, C., Lee, M. N. N., & Neubauer, D. (Eds.). (2016). The Palgrave handbook of Asian higher education. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  9. Deem, R., Mok, K. H., & Lucas, L. (2008). Transforming higher education in whose image? Exploring the concept of the “world-class” university in Europe and Asia. Higher Education Policy, 21(1), 83–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Education Bureau (EDB). (2015). Figures and statistics. Retrieved from http://www.edb.gov.hk/en/about-edb/publications-stat/figures/index.html.
  11. Forrest, J. F., & Altbach, P. G. (Eds.). (2011). International handbook of higher education. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  12. Hawkins, J., Mok, K. H., & Neubauer, D. (2014, October). Higher education massification in the Asia Pacific. Paper Presented at The Senior Seminar on The Many Faces of Asia Pacific Higher Education in the Massification Era, Hong Kong Institute of Education.Google Scholar
  13. Information Portal for Accredited Post-secondary Programmes (iPASS). (2015). Statistical information. Retrieved from http://www.ipass.gov.hk/edb/index.php/en/home/statheader/stat.
  14. Kuhn, A. (2016). In Hong Kong, a tussle over academic freedom. Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/sections/parallels/2016/02/10/465702928/in-hong-kong-a-tussle-over-academic-freedom.
  15. Kosmützky, A., & Putty, R. (2016). Transcending borders and traversing boundaries: A systematic review of the literature on transnational, offshore, cross-border, and borderless higher education. Journal of Studies in International Education, 20(1), 8–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Legislative Council Panel. (2016). 2016 policy address: Policy initiatives of innovation and technology bureau. Retrieved from http://www.legco.gov.hk/yr15-16/english/panels/ci/papers/ci20160119cb1-436-5-e.pdf.
  17. Liu, N. C., & Cheng, Y. (2005). The academic ranking of world universities. Higher Education in Europe, 30(2), 127–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Liu, Y., Green, A., & Pensiero, N. (2016). Expansion of higher education and inequalities of opportunities: A cross-national analysis. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 38(3), 242–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lo, Y. W. W. (2014). University rankings: Implications for higher education in Taiwan. Singapore: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lo, W. Y. W. (2015). Revisiting the notion of Hong Kong as a regional education hub. Higher Education Policy, 28(1), 55–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lo, W. Y. W. (2016). The recalibration of neoliberalisation: Repoliticising higher education policy in Hong Kong. Higher Education, 1–15.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-016-9989-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Marginson, S. (2016). High participation systems of higher education. The Journal of Higher Education, 82(2), 243–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mok, K. H. (2005). The quest for world class university: Quality assurance and international benchmarking in Hong Kong. Quality Assurance in Education, 13(4), 277–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mok, K. H. (2013). The quest for entrepreneurial universities in East Asia. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mok, K. H. (2016a). Massification of higher education, graduate employment and social mobility in the Greater China Region. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 37(1), 51–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mok, K. H. (2016b, May). The quest for the flagship university and global ranking: Challenges and prospects for liberal arts education in Asia. Paper Presented at The Senior Seminar of The Changing Nature and Value of the Flagship University, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.Google Scholar
  27. Mok, K. H. (Ed.). (2017). Managing international connectivity, diversity of learning and changing labour markets: East Asian perspectives. Singapore: Springer.Google Scholar
  28. Mok, K. H. (forthcoming). Should higher education be vocationalised? The role of liberal-arts education in Hong Kong. In T. Purinton & J. Skaggs (Eds.), American universities abroad: The leadership of independent transnational higher education institutions. Cairo: AUC Press.Google Scholar
  29. Mok, K. H., & Chan, S. J. (2016). After massification and response to internationalization: Quality assurance of higher education in Taiwan and Hong Kong. In C. Collins, M. N. N. Lee, & D. Neubauer (Eds.), The Palgrave handbook of Asian higher education (pp. 423–438). New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mok, K. H., & Cheung, A. B. (2011). Global aspirations and strategizing for world-class status: New form of politics in higher education governance in Hong Kong. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 33(3), 231–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mok, K. H., & Han, X. (2016). The quest for effective university governance: The Hong Kong experience. China Higher Education Research, 8, 55–60. (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  32. Mok, K. H., & Han, X. (2017). Internationalization and transnationalization of higher education: A review of the Asia Pacific region. In K. H. Mok (Ed.), Managing international connectivity, diversity of learning and changing labour markets: East Asian perspectives (pp. 42–72). Singapore: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mok, K. H., & Hawkins, J. (2010). The quest for world-class status: Globalization and higher education in East Asia. In F. Lazin, N. Jayaram, & M. Evans (Eds.), Higher education and equality of opportunities: Cross-national perspectives (pp. 123–143). Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  34. Mok, K. H., & Jiang, J. (2017). Massification of higher education: Challenges for admissions and graduate employment in China. In K. H. Mok (Ed.), Managing international connectivity, diversity of learning and changing labour markets: East Asian perspectives (pp. 219–243). Singapore: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mok, K. H., Wen, Z. Y., & Dale, R. (2016). Employability and mobility in valorization of higher education qualifications: The experiences and reflections of Chinese students and graduates. Higher Education Policy and Management, 38(3), 264–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Oh, Y. C., Shin, G. W., & Moon, R. J. (Eds.). (2016). Internationalizing Higher education in Korea: Challenges and opportunities in comparative perspectives. APARC: Stanford University, CA.Google Scholar
  37. Ortmann, S. (2015). The umbrella movement and Hong Kong’s protracted democratization process. Asian Affairs, 46(1), 32–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Peters, B. G., & Pierre, J. (1998). Governance without government? Rethinking public administration. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 8(2), 223–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Rhodes, R. A. W. (1996). The new governance: Governing without government. Political Studies, 44(4), 652–667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Schwarzman, S., Pinheiro, R., & Pillay, P. (Eds.). (2015). Higher education in the BRICS countries. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  41. Shin, J. C., & Harman, G. (2009). New challenges for higher education: Global and Asia-Pacific perspectives. Asia Pacific Education Review, 10(1), 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Trow, M. (1973). Problems in the transition from elite to mass higher education. Berkeley, CA: Carnegie Commission on Higher Education.Google Scholar
  43. University Grants Committee (UGC). (2009–2016). Knowledge transfer. Retrieved from http://www.ugc.hk/eng/ugc/activity/kt/kt.htm.
  44. University Grants Committee (UGC). (2015). Statistics. Retrieved from http://cdcf.ugc.edu.hk/cdcf/searchStatSiteReport.do.
  45. University Grants Committee (UGC). (2016). Governance in UGC-funded higher education institutions in Hong Kong—Report of the University Grants Committee. Retrieved from http://www.ugc.edu.hk/eng/ugc/publication/report/report30032016.htm.
  46. World Bank. (2015). School gross enrollment rate: Tertiary. Retrieved from http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.TER.ENRR/countries.
  47. Yonezawa, A., Chen, S., Jung, J., & Lo, W. Y. W. (2017). Catch-up and identity: Developments in and impacts of university rankings in East Asia. In E. Hazelkorn (Ed.), Global rankings and the geo-politics of higher education: Understanding the influence and impact of rankings on higher education (pp. 116–127). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Lingnan UniversityHong KongChina

Personalised recommendations