Green Chromatography and Related Techniques

  • Alshymaa A. Aly
  • Tadeusz GóreckiEmail author
Part of the Green Chemistry and Sustainable Technology book series (GCST)


Gas and liquid chromatographic methods are widely used in the analysis of organic compounds in different types of matrices. To protect the environment, it is very important that these methods have a negligible environmental impact. Chromatographic techniques can be greener at all the steps of the analysis, from sample preparation to the final determination of sample components. In this chapter, the different approaches that have been used to achieve the goals of green chromatography are summarized. Regarding sample preparation, it is not always practical to eliminate this step to make the analysis greener; however, solvent-free extraction techniques are considered a good alternative. During all the steps of the analysis, the chief goal is to minimize the organic solvent impact on the environment. There are many approaches used to make chromatographic separation greener, for instance, reducing the solvent consumption, using narrow, shorter analytical columns to shorten the analysis time, and substituting toxic and hazardous solvents with more ecofriendly alternatives. Multidimensional separation techniques such as GC × GC and LC × LC have also the potential to make the analysis of very complex samples greener by reducing the analysis time and waste production.


Green analytical chemistry Green chromatography Green sample preparation techniques Ecofriendly solvents Environmental impact 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity of WaterlooWaterlooCanada
  2. 2.Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of PharmacyMinia UniversityMinyaEgypt

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