New Achievements in the Field of Extraction of Trace Analytes from Samples Characterized by Complex Composition of the Matrix

  • Katarzyna Owczarek
  • Natalia SzczepańskaEmail author
  • Justyna Płotka-Wasylka
  • Jacek Namieśnik
Part of the Green Chemistry and Sustainable Technology book series (GCST)


Without any doubt, the monitoring of compounds present in samples at trace or ultra-trace level usually requires a preliminary step of isolation and/or enrichment of analytes due to the fact that majority of analytical techniques are not sensitive enough for direct determination of trace compounds. On the other hand, sample preparation is considered as crucial part of whole analytical procedures, in particular in samples characterized by complex composition of the matrices. Several new miniaturized extraction techniques have been introduced and extensively applied to different types of samples. Here, you can highlight both solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and liquid-phase microextraction (LPME). Based on the recently published literature data, this review provides an update of the most important features and the application of LPME and SPME techniques. Comparisons of these techniques have been made. Discussions on the present limitations as well as expected future trends of the green techniques of sample preparation for the improvement of the analytical determinations were made. Moreover, special attention was paid on the application of different types of microextraction procedures, used in the different fields of analytical chemistry.


Sample preparation Green analytical chemistry Solid-phase microextraction Non-fibre SPME techniques 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Katarzyna Owczarek
    • 1
  • Natalia Szczepańska
    • 1
    Email author
  • Justyna Płotka-Wasylka
    • 1
  • Jacek Namieśnik
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of ChemistryGdańsk University of TechnologyGdańskPoland

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