Advertisement

Teaching Green Analytical and Synthesis Chemistry: Performing Laboratory Experiments in a Greener Way

  • Arabinda Kumar DasEmail author
  • Ruma Chakraborty
  • Miguel de la GuardiaEmail author
Chapter
  • 451 Downloads
Part of the Green Chemistry and Sustainable Technology book series (GCST)

Abstract

Our future challenges in resource, environmental and societal sustainability demand efficient and benign-by-design scientific technologies for working with chemical processes and products. In this chapter, we have considered the major aspects of green analytical and synthetic chemistry as a new paradigm and its integration with higher education course curriculum. Teaching green analytical chemistry must be focused on analytical parameters and practices more than on the incorporation of the so-called green parameters to the basic analytical properties. Thus accuracy, representativeness, traceability, sensitivity and selectivity in the renewed paradigmatic chemistry have been complemented and not excluded by additional considerations on the safety of operators and environment. Reduction of risks, reagents, energy and solvent required the search for new innocuous compounds, the highest level of potential information about the samples and measurements and the responsibility of the laboratories about the elimination and/or reduction and decontamination of the analytical wastes. With this end in view, this chapter complies 16 green laboratory experiments which will be useful to the students and the teachers of chemistry alike. The economical consideration of the greening efforts in method development is another very important aspect of green chemistry, and it will be the major reason for extensive practice in the near future.

Keywords

Benign-by-design experiments Clean analytical processes Green synthesis Eco-friendly chemistry Green methodologies Sustainable education 

References

  1. 1.
    Das AK, Chakraborty R (2017) Microwave-enhanced speciation analysis of environmental samples. Curr Microw Chem 4:5–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dutta S, Das AK (2012) Green analytical laboratory experiments. In: de la Guardia M, Garrigues S (eds) Handbook of green analytical chemistry, 1st edn. Wiley, ChichesterCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    de la Guardia M, Garrigues S (2012) Handbook of green analytical chemistry, 1st edn. Wiley, ChichesterCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Das AK (2014) Elements of green chemistry with green laboratory experiments. Readers Service, KolkataGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wals AEJ (2010) Mirroring, gestalt witching and transformative social learning. Int J Sustain High Ed 11:380–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Singh MM, Szafran Z, Pike RM (1999) Microscale chemistry and green chemistry: complementary pedagogies. J Chem Ed 76:1684–1686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Louw W (2013) Green curriculum: sustainable learning at a higher education institution. Int Rev Res Open Dist Learn 14(1):1–14Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Anastas PT, Warner JC (1998) Green chemistry: theory and practice. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cue BW Jr (2015) Green chemistry principle #1 ACS, http://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/greenchemistry/what.is.green.chemistry/principles/gc.pri. Accessed on 16.05.2018
  10. 10.
    Constable D (2014) Green chemistry principle #6, ACS, http://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/greenchemistry/what-is-green-chemistry/principles/gc.prin. Accessed on 18.05.2018
  11. 11.
    Anastas ND (2014) Green chemistry principle #4, ACS, http://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/greenchemistry/what-is-green-chemistry/principles/gc.prin. Accessed on 18.05.2018
  12. 12.
    Xiao J (2012) Merging organocatalysis with transition metal catalysis: highly stereoselective α-alkylation of aldehydes. Org Lett 14:1716–1719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jimenez-Gonzalez C (2014) Green chemistry principle #5, ACS, http://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/greenchemistry/what-is-green-chemistry/principles/gc.prin. Accessed on 18.05.2018
  14. 14.
    Dunn PJ (2014) Green chemistry principle #8, ACS, http://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/greenchemistry/about/principles/gr. Accessed on 18.05.2018
  15. 15.
    Wool R (2014) Green chemistry principle #7, ACS, http://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/greenchemistry/about/principles/gr. Accessed on 18.05.2018
  16. 16.
    United Nations Global Compact (2011). The University of South Africa communication on progress. Unisa Press, Pretoria, p 7Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Varma RS (2014) Greener and sustainable chemistry. Appl Sci 4:493–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Koel M, Kaljurand M (2010) Green analytical chemistry. RSC Publishing, UKGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Das AK, de la Guardia M (2009) Greener the spectroscopy. Spectrosc Lett 42:275–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Korthou H, Verpoorte R (2007) Vanilla, flavours and fragrances. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bandyopadhyay D, Banik BK (2012) Bismuth nitrate-induced microwave-assisted expeditious synthesis of vanillin from curcumin. Org Med Chem Lett 2:15–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Akaiyama T, Suzuki A, Fuchibe K (2005) Mannich-type reaction promoted by an ionic liquid. Synlett 1024–1026Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ranu BC, Jana R (2005) Catalysis by ionic liquid: A green protocol for the stereoselective debromination of vicinal-dibromides by [pmIm]BF4 under microwave irradiation. J Org Chem 70:8621–8624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Srinivas C, Kumar CNSSP, Rao VJ, Palaniappan S (2007) Efficient, convenient and reusable polyaniline-sulfate salt catalyst for the synthesis of quinoxaline derivatives. J Mol Catal A: Chem 265:227–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bachhav HM, Bhagat SB, Telvekar VK (2011) Efficient protocol for the synthesis of quinoxaline, benzoxazole and benzimidazole derivatives using glycerol as green solvent. Tetrahedron Lett 52:5697–5701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rogers RD, Bond AH, Bauer CB (1993) Metal ion separation in polyethylene glycol based aqueous biphasic systems. Sep Sci Technol 28:1091–1126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lahiri S, Roy K (2009) A green approach for sequential extraction of heavy metals from Li irradiated Au target. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 281:531–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sato T, Watanabe H, Suzuki H (1990) Liquid-liquid extraction of molybdenum (VI) from aqueous solutions by TBP and TOPO. Hydrometallurgy 23:297–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Mishra VG, Thakur UK, Shah DJ, Gupta NK, Jeyakumar S, Tomar BS, Ramakumar KL (2015) Direct separation of molybdenum from solid uranium matrices employing pyrohydrolysis, a green separation method, and its determination by ion chromatography. Anal Chem 87:10728–10733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mukaiyama T (1982) The directed aldol reaction. In: Dauben WG (ed) Organic reactions, vol 28, Wiley, New York, pp 203–331Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Motiur Rahman AFM, Ali R, Jahng Y, Kadi AA (2012) A facile solvent free Claisen-Schmidt reaction: synthesis of α,α′-bis-(substituted-benzylidene)cycloalkanones and α,α′-bis-(substituted-alkylidene)cycloalkanones. Molecules 17:571–583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lindsey JS, Schreiman IC, Hsu HC, Kearney PC, Marguerettaz AM (1987) Rothemund and Adler-Longo reactions revisited: synthesis of tetraphenylporphyrins under equilibrium conditions. J Org Chem 52:827–836CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Warner MG, Succaw GL, Hutchison JE (2001) Solventless syntheses of mesotetraphenylporphyrin: new experiments for a greener organic chemistry laboratory curriculum. Green Chem 3:267–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Zeegers P (1993) Nitration of phenols: a two-phase system. J Chem Educ 70:1036CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Yadav U, Mande H, Ghalsasi P (2012) Nitration of phenols using Cu(NO3)2: green chemistry laboratory experiment. J Chem Educ 89:268–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Daştan A, Kulkarni A, Török B (2012) Environmentally benign synthesis of heterocyclic compounds by combined microwave—assisted heterogeneous catalytic approaches. Green Chem 14:17–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kokel A, Török B (2017) Microwave-assisted solid phase diazotation: a method for the environmentally benign synthesis of benzotriazoles. Green Chem 19:2515–2519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Khan AT, Choudhry LH, Parvin T, Ali MA (2006) CeCl3·7H2O: an efficient and reusable catalyst for the preparation of β–acetamido carbonyl compounds by multicomponent reactions. Tetrahedron Lett 47:8137–8141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Dintzner MR, Maresh JJ, Kinzie CR, Arena AF, Speltz T (2012) A research-based undergraduate organic laboratory project: investigation of a one-pot, multicomponent, environmentally friendly Prins–Friedel–Crafts-type reaction. J Chem Educ 89:265–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Murphy CJ, Sau TK, Gole AM, Orendorff CJ, GaoJ X, Gou LS, Hunyadi E, Li T (2005) Anisotropic metal nanoparticles: synthesis, assembly and optical applications. J Phys Chem B 109:13857–13870CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Sharma RK, Gulati S, Mehta S (2012) Preparation of gold nanoparticles using tea: a green chemistry experiment. J Chem Educ 89:1316–1318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Krishnaraj C, Jagan EG, Rajasekar S, Selvakumar P, Kalaichelvan PT, Mohan N (2010) Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Acalyphaindica leaf extracts and its antibacterial activity against water borne pathogens. Colloids Surf B Biointer 76:50–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ahmed S, Ikram S (2015) Silver nanoparticles: one pot green synthesis using Terminalia arjuna extract for biological application. J Nanomed Nanotechnol 6:309–313Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Cava-Montesinos P, Rodenas-Torralba E, Morales-Rubio A, Cervera ML, de la Guardia M (2004) Cold vapor atomic fluorescence determination of mercury in milk slurry sampling using multicommutation. Anal Chim Acta 506:145–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Armenta S, de la Guardia M (2011) Determination of mercury in milk by cold vapor atomic fluorescence: a green analytical chemistry laboratory experiment. J Chem Educ 88:488–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Bendich A, Machlin LJ, Scandura O, Burton GW, Wayner DDM (1986) The antioxidant role of vitamin C. Adv Free Radic Biol Med 2:419–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kleszczewski T, Kleszczewska E (2002) Flow injection spectrophotometric determination of l-ascorbic acid in biological matters. J Pharm Biomed Anal 29:755–759CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Arthur CL, Pawliszyn J (1990) Solid phase micro-extraction with thermal desorption using fused silica optical fibres. Anal Chem 62:2145–2148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Arain SA, Kazi TG, Afridi HI, Ullah N, Arain MS, Panhwar AH (2015) Development of miniaturized solid phase microextraction of copper in serum using a micropipette tip in-syringe system combined with micro sampling flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Anal Method 7:3431–3437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Fresenius W, Quentin KE, Scheneider W (eds) (1988) Water analysis: a practical guide to physico-chemical, chemical and microbiological water examination and quality assurance. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Badr IHA, Hassan HH, Hamed E, Abdel-Aziz AM (2017) Sensitive and green method for determination of chemical oxygen demand using a nano-copper based electrochemical sensor. Electroanalysis 29:2401–2409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    del Baldo M, Baldarelli M-G (2017) Educating for sustainability: perspectives and critical note on accounting scholars’ role in higher education. Sci Ann Econ Bus 64:411–422.  https://doi.org/10.1515/saeb-2017-0032CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Analytical ChemistryUniversity of ValenciaValenciaSpain

Personalised recommendations