Advertisement

From “Mind and Body” to “Mind in Body”: A Research Approach for a Description of Personality as a Functional Unit of Thoughts, Behaviours and Affective States

  • Daniela IennacoEmail author
  • Raffaele Sperandeo
  • Lucia Luciana Mosca
  • Martina Messina
  • Enrico Moretto
  • Valeria Cioffi
  • Silvia Dell’Orco
  • Mauro N. Maldonato
Chapter
  • 349 Downloads
Part of the Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies book series (SIST, volume 151)

Abstract

The study of personality has been developed according to different lines of research in which it is also possible to identify transversal elements that are useful for an unprecedented trans-theoretical research programme. The existence of a close relation between the contents of thought (narrative system) and the vegetative and motor functions (experiential system) of the human being is currently considered of great relevance. However, until now, the studies using classic psychological test in order to describe the contents of the narrative system customize the experiential system and produce partial descriptions and non-integrated description of the personality. Nevertheless, when the people reflect about the questions in a personality test, they present (under the action of this cognitive stimulus) a synchronous activity of the narrative and experiential system. The intention of the study proposed in this paper, with the use of biofeedback and neurofeedback methods, is to record the physiological responses of the subject while answering to the items of a personality test, in order to describe it as a functional unit of thoughts, behaviours and affective states. The personality assessment tool, Cloninger’s temperament and character inventory, will be provided with a computerized system: the electrophysiological recording will be produced using the neurofeedback system “Neurobit Optima 4”; for the analysis of electrophysiological measurements, software (“BioExplorer” system) will be used to manage the brain–computer interface (BCI). It is expected that the aforementioned methodology will allow for an original description of the personality as a functional unit of thoughts, behaviours and affective states.

Keywords

Personality Assessment Neurofeedback 

References

  1. 1.
    Maldonato, N.M., Sperandeo, R., Dell’Orco, S., Cozzolino, P., Fusco, M.L., Iorio, V.S., Cipresso, P.: The relationship between personality and neurocognition among the American elderly: an epidemiologic study. Clin. Pract. Epidemiol. Ment. Health: CP & EMH 13, 233 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Noë, A.: Perché non siamo il nostro cervello: una teoria radicale della coscienza. Raffaello Cortina (2010)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Inkster, M., Wellsby, M., Lloyd, E., Pexman, P.M.: Development of embodied word meanings: sensorimotor effects in children’s lexical processing. Front. Psychol. 7, 317 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Barca, L., Mazzuca, C., Borghi, A.M.: Pacifier overuse and conceptual relations of abstract and emotional concepts. Front. Psychol. 8 (2017)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Vallet, G.T., Hudon, C., Bier, N., Macoir, J., Versace, R., Simard, M.: A SEMantic and EPisodic Memory Test (SEMEP) developed within the embodied cognition framework: application to normal aging, Alzheimer’s disease and semantic dementia. Front. Psychol. 8, 1493 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Epstein, S.: Cognitive-Experiential Theory: An Integrative Theory of Personality. Oxford University Press (2014)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Di Nubila, R.D., Fedeli, M.: L’esperienza: quando diventa fattore di formazione e di sviluppo: dall’opera di David A. Kolb alle attuali metodologie di Experiential Learning Testimonianze e case study. Pensa multimedia (2010)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Johnson-Glenberg, M.C., Megowan-Romanowicz, C., Birchfield, D.A., Savio-Ramos, C.: Effects of embodied learning and digital platform on the retention of physics content: centripetal force. Front. Psychol. 7, 1819 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lozada, M., Carro, N.: Embodied action improves cognition in children: evidence from a study based on Piagetian conservation tasks. Front. Psychol. 7, 393 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kuo, C.Y., Yeh, Y.Y.: Sensorimotor-conceptual integration in free walking enhances divergent thinking for young and older adults. Front. Psychol. 7, 1580 (2016)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sperandeo, R., Maldonato, M., Baldo, G., Dell’Orco, S.: Executive functions, temperament and character traits: a quantitative analysis of the relationship between personality and prefrontal functions. In: 2016 7th IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Infocommunications (CogInfoCom), pp. 000043–000048. IEEE (2016)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kandel, E.R., Schwartz, J.H., Jessell, T.M.: Principi di neuroscienze (1994)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cantone, D., Sperandeo, R., Maldonato, M.: A dimensional approach to personality disorders in a sample of juvenile offenders. Rev. Latinoam. Psicopatol. Fundam. 15(1), 42–57 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sperandeo, R., Picciocchi, E., Valenzano, A., Cibelli, G., Ruberto, V., Moretto, E., et al.: Exploring the relationships between executive functions and personality dimensions in the light of “embodied cognition” theory: a study on a sample of 130 subjects. Acta Med. Mediterr. 34(5), 1271–1279 (2018)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rogers, C.R.: Libertà nell’apprendimento (1969), tr. it. a cura di R. Tettucci, Giunti-Barbera, Firenze (1973)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chen, X., Liu, B., Lin, S.: Is accessing of words affected by affective valence only? A discrete emotion view on the emotional congruency effect. Front. Psychol. 7, 916 (2016)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bruner, J.S., Rini, R.: La mente a più dimensioni. Laterza (1988)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Setti, A., Borghi, A.M.: Embodied cognition over the lifespan: theoretical issues and implications for applied settings. Front. Psychol. 9, 550 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dewey, J.: Esperienza e natura, trad. it. Milano: Mursia (1990)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Adams, A.M.: How language is embodied in bilinguals and children with specific language impairment. Front. Psychol. 7, 1209 (2016)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jeannerod, M.: Motor Cognition: What Actions Tell the Self, vol. 42. Oxford University Press (2006)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Borghi, A.M., Setti, A.: Abstract concepts and aging: an embodied and grounded perspective. Front. Psychol. 8, 430 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Thill, S., Twomey, K.E.: What’s on the inside counts: a grounded account of concept acquisition and development. Front. Psychol. 7, 402 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Pouw, W.T., Van Gog, T., Zwaan, R.A., Paas, F.: Augmenting instructional animations with a body analogy to help children learn about physical systems. Front. Psychol. 7, 860 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Repetto, C., Serino, S., Macedonia, M., Riva, G.: Virtual reality as an embodied tool to enhance episodic memory in elderly. Front. Psychol. 7, 1839 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Maldonato, M., Montuori, A., Dell’orco, S.: The exploring Mind. Natural Logic and Intelligence of the Unconscious. Mauro Maldonato (2013)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hainselin, M., Picard, L., Manolli, P., Vankerkore-Candas, S., Bourdin, B.: Hey teacher, don’t leave them kids alone: action is better for memory than reading. Front. Psychol. 8, 325 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Maldonato, M., Sperandeo, R., Dell’Orco, S., Iennaco, D., Cerroni, F., Romano, P., Tripi, G.: Mind, brain and altered states of consciousness. Acta Med. Mediterr. 34(2), 357–366 (2018)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5®). American Psychiatric Publishing (2013)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sperandeo, R., Monda, V., Messina, G., Carotenuto, M., Maldonato, N.M., Moretto, E., Messina, A.: Brain functional integration: an epidemiologic study on stress-producing dissociative phenomena. Neuropsychiatric Dis. Treat. 14, 11 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sloman, S., Fernback, P.: L’illusione della conoscenza. Raffaello Cortina (2018)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Rizzolatti, G., Kalaska, J.E.: Il movimento volontario. In: Kandel et al. (eds.) La corteccia parietale e la corteccia premotoria, pp. 864–893 (2015)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Maldonato, N.M., Sperandeo, R., Dell’Orco, S., Cozzolino, P., Fusco, M.L., Iorio, V.S., Cipresso, P.: The relationship between personality and neurocognition among the american elderly: an epidemiologic study. Clin. Pract. Epidemiol. Ment. Health CP & EMH 13, 233 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Dempster, T.: An investigation into the optimum training paradigm for alpha electroencephalographic biofeedback. Doctoral dissertation, Canterbury Christ Church University (2012)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Capellini, R., Sacchi, S., Ricciardelli, P., Actis-Grosso, R.: Social threat and motor resonance: when a menacing outgroup delays motor response. Front. Psychol. 7, 1697 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Glenberg, A.M., Hayes, J.: Contribution of embodiment to solving the riddle of infantile amnesia. Front. Psychol. 7, 10 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Evans, J.R., Abarbanel, A. (eds.): Introduction to Quantitative EEG and Neurofeedback. Elsevier (1999)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Richez, A., Olivier, G., Coello, Y.: Stimulus-response compatibility effect in the near-far dimension: a developmental study. Front. Psychol. 7, 1169 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Cloninger, C.R., Przybeck, T.R., Svrakic, D.M., Wetzel, R.D.: The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI): A Guide to its Development and Use (1994)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Maldonato, N.M., Sperandeo, R., Caiazzo, G., Cioffi, V., Cozzolino, P., De Santo, R.M., Nascivera, N.: Keep moving without hurting: the interaction between physical activity and pain in determining cognitive function at the population level. PLoS ONE 13(6), e0197745 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hofer, S.M., Horn, J.L., Eber, H.W.: A robust five-factor structure of the 16PF: strong evidence from independent rotation and confirmatory factorial invariance procedures. Personality Individ. Differ. 23(2), 247–269 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Appollonio, I., Leone, M., Isella, V., Piamarta, F., Consoli, T., Villa, M.L., Nichelli, P.: The Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB): normative values in an Italian population sample. Neurol. Sci. 26(2), 108–116 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Bryman, A., Cramer, D.: Quantitative Data Analysis with IBM SPSS 17, 18 & 19: A Guide for Social Scientists. Routledge (2012)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Costello, M.C., Bloesch, E.K.: Are older adults less embodied? A review of age effects through the lens of embodied cognition. Front. Psychol. 8, 267 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Lécuyer, A., Lotte, F., Reilly, R.B., Leeb, R., Hirose, M., Slater, M.: Brain-computer interfaces, virtual reality, and videogames. Computer 41(10), 66–72 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Maldonato, N.M., Sperandeo, R., Moretto, E., Dell’Orco, S.: A non-linear predictive model of borderline personality disorder based on multilayer perceptron. Front. Psychol. 9, 447 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Barca, L., Mazzuca, C., Borghi, A.M.: Pacifier overuse and conceptual relations of abstract and emotional concepts. Front. Psychol. 8, 2014 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ninaus, M., Moeller, K., Kaufmann, L., Fischer, M.H., Nuerk, H.C., Wood, G.: Cognitive mechanisms underlying directional and non-directional spatial-numerical associations across the lifespan. Front. Psychol. 8, 1421 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.SiPGI—Postgraduate School of Integrated Gestalt PsychotherapyTorre Annunziata, NaplesItaly
  2. 2.Department of Neuroscience and Reproductive Sciences and OdontostomatologyUniversity of Naples Federico IINaplesItaly

Personalised recommendations