Election Campaigns and New Media in Malaysia

  • Pauline Pooi Yin Leong


The fourth chapter will trace the history and purpose, as well as the role and impact of the Internet on election campaigns. Next, it will outline the background of political campaigns and the use of communication strategies in Malaysian general elections from GE12 in 2008 and GE13 in 2013 to the most recent GE14 in 2018.


Election campaigns Popular culture Propaganda Online campaigns Facebook WhatsApp 


  1. Abdul Latif, A. B. (1998). Peranan media dalam pilihanraya persekutuan [the role of the media in general election]. Shah Alam, Selangor: Fajar Bakti.Google Scholar
  2. ABN News. (2013, April 30). GE13: Two students claim BN supporters molested them during Najib event. ABN News. Retrieved from
  3. Adam, A. (2018, April 5). DAP drops rocket logo for GE14, RoS tells PPBM to close. The Edge Markets. Retrieved from
  4. Ananthalakshmi, A., & Sipalan, J. (2018, January 24). Malaysian makeover: At 92, Mahathir seeks to be PM again. Reuters. Retrieved from
  5. Anbalagan, V. (2013, July 24). Najib’s GE13 tweets lacked impact, bounced between cybertroopers, research shows. The Malaysian Insider. Retrieved from
  6. Anith, A. (2018a, September 13). Lack of social media presence contributed to GE14 loss, says PAS ulama. Malay Mail Online. Retrieved from
  7. Anith, A. (2018b, May 2). Thousands turn out to see Dr M bat for Pakatan in Titiwangsa. Malay Mail Online. Retrieved from
  8. Ansolabehere, S., & Iyengar, S. (1995). Going negative: How attack ads shrink and polarise the electorate. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  9. Anstead, N. (2008). The internet and campaign finance in the US and the UK: An institutional comparison. Journal of Information Technology and Politics, 5(3), 285–302.Google Scholar
  10. Anstead, N., & Chadwick, A. (2008). Parties, election campaigning, and the internet: Toward a comparative institutional approach. In A. Chadwick & P. Howard (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of internet politics (pp. 56–71). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  11. Asian Strategy and Leadership Institute. (2008). An analysis of Malaysia’s 12th general election. Retrieved from
  12. AsiaOne News. (2013, April 6). Malaysia election: 20,000 soft panda toys to boost MCA’s campaign in Penang. AsiaOne News. Retrieved from
  13. Asohan, A. (2013a, May 10). GE13: A ‘social media election’ after all. Digital News Asia. Retrieved from
  14. Asohan, A. (2013b, April 22). GE13: Is Najib winning the ‘social media election’? . Digital News Asia. Retrieved from
  15. Aspinall, E. (2013). The triumph of the machine. Inside Story, 7.
  16. Asrul Hadi, A. S. (2013, May 1). GE13: CFM condemns inflammatory campaign against Christians. Retrieved from
  17. Astro Awani English. (2013a, April 24). Love is in the air for MCA. Astro Awani English. Retrieved from
  18. Astro Awani English. (2013b, April 4). Malaysian political parties embracing new media. Astro Awani English. Retrieved from
  19. Auty, C., & Nicholas, D. (1998). British political parties and their web pages. ASLIB Proceedings, 50(10), 283–296.Google Scholar
  20. Awaina, A., & Mohd Nasaruddin, P. (2018, May 18). Dr M’s RM12 sandals go viral, Bata cashes in. New Straits Times Online. Retrieved from
  21. Axyrd, S. (2018, May 13). GE14: Sheer lucky coincidences or brilliant yet subtle social media strategising by PH? Digital News Asia. Retrieved from
  22. Azim, A. (2018, March 23). Malaysia’s 93-year-old ex-PM gatecrashes forum, stuns ‘ageist’ critics. Asian Correspondent. Retrieved from
  23. Azril, A. (2013, April 23). GE13: EC probe proves rumours of multiple voting false. Retrieved from
  24. Badrul, H. I. (2018). No Big Rallies in GE14, Personal Touch Strategy to Woo Vote. The Affair Retrieved from
  25. Baharuddin, H. A., Abdullah@Kassim, M., Rahmat, G., & Abdul Rasid, A. R. (2000). Kajian mengenai peranan dan pengaruh internet terhadap para pengundi semasa pilihanraya umum Malaysia 1999 [Research on the internet’s role and influence on voters during the 1999 Malaysian general election]. Retrieved from.Google Scholar
  26. Barnes, J. (2018, May 8). How far do political ads on YouTube influence voters? The Malay Mail Online. Retrieved from
  27. Bernama. (2013a, December 19). Abby to help campaign for PAS. Retrieved from
  28. Bernama. (2013b, May 1). GE13: 15 summoned by MCMC over spreading of rumours. Retrieved from
  29. Bimber, B. (1998). The internet and political mobilisation: Research note on the 1996 election season. Social Science Computer Review, 16(4), 391–401.Google Scholar
  30. Bimber, B. (2003). Information and American democracy: Technology in the evolution of political power. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Bimber, B., & Davis, R. (2003). Campaigning online: The internet in US elections. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Blumler, J. G., & Kavanagh, D. (1999). The third age of political communication: Influences and features. Political Communication, 16(3), 209–230.Google Scholar
  33. Board, J. (2018, May 8). Mahathir makes final case for election in Langkawi, craves for encore. ChannelNewsAsia. Retrieved from
  34. Boo, S.-L. (2018, March 28). Winning the Malay vote in GE14. Retrieved from
  35. Brown, V. (2018a, May 4). Dr M draws on ‘the Force’ in campaign poster on star wars day. The Star Online. Retrieved from
  36. Brown, V. (2018b, May 3). Dr M slips up, mistakenly tells people to support BN. The Star Online. Retrieved from
  37. Butler, D., & Ranney, A. (Eds.). (1992). Electioneering: A comparative study of continuity and change. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Carlson, T., & Djupsund, G. (2001). Old wine in new bottles? The 1999 Finnish election campaign on the internet. The Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 6(1), 68–87.Google Scholar
  39. Castells, M. (2002). The internet galaxy: Reflections on the internet, business and society. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Centre for Independent Journalism. (2014). A report by the Centre for Independent Journalism: Freedom of expression and GE-13 (S. E. C. Masjaliza Hamzah, Han see Tshiung Ed.). Kuala Lumpur: Author.Google Scholar
  41. Chalil, M. (2018, May 8). After ‘mamak’ video, Khairy back with another featuring actress Vanida Imran. Retrieved from
  42. Chan, W. S. (2013, April 29). GE13: In Chinese Press: Dong Zong gives up hope on BN. Retrieved from
  43. Chong, Y. L. (2009). Dr Mahathir is back as “flavour of the season”? Retrieved from.
  44. Chooi, C. (2013, May 26). ‘Red Bean Army’ a figment of Utusan’s imagination: Kit Siang. The Malaysian Insider. Retrieved from
  45. Choong, J. (2018, August 10). Fly national colours proudly, Dr M urges Malaysians in heartwarming Merdeka video. Malay Mail Online. Retrieved from
  46. Christopher, M., Payne, A., & Ballantyne, D. (1991). Relationship marketing. Oxford, UK: Butterworth-Heinemann.Google Scholar
  47. Chu, M. M. (2018, April 13). With a serious election, comes the lighter side of Malaysians. The Star Online. Retrieved from
  48. Chua, K. (2013, May 1). GE13: Political parties banking on cuddly toys to win voters’ hearts. The Star Online. Retrieved from
  49. Connaughton, M. (2016, April 5). Meet the Malaysian artist fighting government corruption with a cartoon. Vice.Google Scholar
  50. D’Alessio, D. (1997). Use of the world wide web in the 1996 US election. Election Studies, 16(4), 489–500.Google Scholar
  51. Denver, D., & Hands, G. (1992). Constituency campaigning. Parliamentary Affairs, 45(4), 528–544.Google Scholar
  52. Dina, M. (2016, August 11). Syed Saddiq discusses Parti Pribumi. The Star Online. Retrieved from
  53. Ding, E. (2013, April 23). Fear-mongering ads against Pakatan likely to backfire, says industry. The Malaysian Insider. Retrieved from
  54. Election Commission. (1972). Report on the parliamentary (dewan Rakyat) and state legislative assembly general election 1969 of the states of Malaya, Sabah and Sarawak. Retrieved from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia:Google Scholar
  55. Election Commission. (1988). Report of the Malaysian general election 1986. Retrieved from Kuala Lumpur:Google Scholar
  56. Ell. (2013, April 29). Industri filem dan muzik hancur jika PAS berkuasa – Norman KRU [The film and music industry will collapse if PAS comes into power – Norman KRU]. Retrieved from
  57. Ellis-Petersen, H. (2018, June 24). Malaysia’s top cartoonist says he’ll miss PM who tried to jail him for 43 years. The Guardian. Retrieved from
  58. Emmanuel, M., Loh, D., & Karim, F. N. (2004, March 24). Polls could see SMS explosion. New Straits Times, p. 6.Google Scholar
  59. Fauziah, I. (2016, September 8). Patriotic power of music. New Straits Times. Retrieved from
  60. FMT Reporters. (2017, July 12). Rafizi: Johor will lead shift in support for PH. Free Malaysia Today. Retrieved from
  61. FMT Reporters. (2018, June 8). Branding guru tells why BN lost despite aggressive campaign. Free Malaysia Today. Retrieved from
  62. Foot, K. A., & Schneider, S. M. (2002). Online action in campaign 2000: An exploratory analysis of the US political web sphere. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 46(2), 222–244.Google Scholar
  63. Gaik, C. K. (2018, May 6). Notes from the campaign: Lembah Pantai. Retrieved from
  64. Gibson, R. K., Newell, J. L., & Ward, S. J. (2000). New parties, new media: Italian party politics and the internet. South European Society and Politics, 5(1), 123–136.Google Scholar
  65. Gibson, R. K., & Rommele, A. (2001). Changing campaign communications: A party-centred theory of professional campaigning. The Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 6(4), 31–43.Google Scholar
  66. Gibson, R. K., & Ward, S. J. (1998). UK political parties on the internet: Politics as usual in the new media? The Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 3(3), 14–38.Google Scholar
  67. Gibson, R. K., & Ward, S. J. (2002). Virtual campaigning: Australian parties and the impact of the internet. Australian Journal of Political Science, 37(1), 99–129.Google Scholar
  68. Gibson, R. K., Ward, S. J., & Lusoli, W. (2002). The internet and political campaigning: The new medium comes of age. Representations, 39(3), 166–180.Google Scholar
  69. Gomez, J. (2013, March 26). Malaysia’s social media election is already over. The Malaysian Insider. Retrieved from
  70. Grant, A. (2005). Party and election finance in Britain and America: A comparative analysis. Parliamentary Affairs, 58(1), 71–88.Google Scholar
  71. Hall, S. (2006). Encoding/decoding. In M. G. K. Durham, Douglas M. (Ed.), Media and Cultural Studies: Key Works (Revised edn.). Main Street, Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.Google Scholar
  72. Hall Jamieson, K. (1996). Packaging the presidency: A history and criticism of presidential campaign advertising (3rd ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  73. Haris, I. (2013, January 11). Please take the Lao Tze vs Soi Lek comic far and wide. Retrieved from
  74. Harrop, M. (1986). Voting and the electorate. In H. Drucker, P. Dunleavy, A. Gamble, & G. Peele (Eds.), Developments in British politics (Vol. 2, pp. 34–59). London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  75. Hassan, K. (2004, March 19). The heat is on … there’s SMS overload and midnight visits. New Straits Times, p. 64.Google Scholar
  76. Hemananthani, S., & Rahimy, R. (2018, January 9). Going big on social media. The Star Online. Retrieved from
  77. Ho, K. Y. (2018, October 18). Zunar settles suit on books, T-shirts seized at fundraiser. Free Malaysia Today. Retrieved from
  78. Hoe, A. (2013). First experience as a polling agent. Retrieved from
  79. Hollins, T. J. (1981). The presentation of politics: The place of party publicity, broadcasting and film in British politics 1918–1939. (PhD), University of Leeds, Leeds.Google Scholar
  80. Horton, D., & Wohl, R. R. (1956). Mass communication and Para-social interaction: Observations on intimacy at a distance. Psychiatry, 19, 215–229.Google Scholar
  81. Houghton, T. J. (2013a). Watching the watchdog: Malaysian media coverage of GE13 preliminary results – release 4. Different ‘language media’ provide differential information about GE13. Retrieved from Kuala Lumpur:
  82. Houghton, T. J. (2013b). Watching the watchdog: Malaysian media coverage of GE13 preliminary results – Release 1. Retrieved from Kuala Lumpur:
  83. Houghton, T. J. (2013c). Watching the watchdog: Malaysian media coverage of GE13 preliminary results – Release 2. Retrieved from Kuala Lumpur:
  84. Howard, P. N. (2006). New media campaigns and the managed citizen. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  85. Ibrahim, S. (2018, June 4). 6 factors that decided GE14. The Malaysian Insight. Retrieved from
  86. Invoke Malaysia. (2017). Jom Bina Semula Negara. Retrieved from
  87. Isentia Malaysia. (2018). GE14 Aftermath: A Look at the Social Media Battlefield Retrieved from
  88. Ismail, K. (1978). The politics of accommodation: An analysis of the 1978 Malaysian general election. Retrieved from SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  89. Iyengar, S., & McGrady, J. A. (2007). Media politics: A citizen’s guide. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.Google Scholar
  90. Jackson, N. (2003). MPs and web technologies: An untapped opportunity? Journal of Public Affairs, 3(2), 124–137.Google Scholar
  91. Jackson, N. (2008). MPs and their e-newsletters: Winning votes by promoting constituency service. The Journal of Legislative Studies, 14(4), 488–499.Google Scholar
  92. Jackson, N., & Lilleker, D. G. (2007). Information, input and the desire to find out what the opposition is doing: The uses and gratifications of political parties’ e-newsletters. Information, Communication and Society, 10(2), 242–264.Google Scholar
  93. Jahabar, S. (2013a, March 22). Ahead of GE13, Najib goes direct to voters with ‘action kit’. The Malaysian Insider. Retrieved from
  94. Jahabar, S. (2013b, March 17). As GE13 looms, BN-friendly ads, videos gobble up cyberspace. The Malaysian Insider. Retrieved from
  95. Kamarck, E. C. (1999). Campaigning on the internet in the elections of 1998. In E. C. Kamarck & J. S. J. Nye (Eds.), Governance in a network world (pp. 99–123). Hollis, NH: Hollis Publishing.Google Scholar
  96. Karthigesu, R. (1994). Sejarah perkembangan televisyen di Malaysia (1963–1983) [History of television development in Malaysia]. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.Google Scholar
  97. Katz, R. S., & Mair, P. (2002). The ascendancy of the party in public office: Party organisational change in 20th-century democracies. In R. Gunther, J. R. Montero, & J. J. Linz (Eds.), Political parties. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  98. Kavanagh, D. (1995). Election campaigning: The new marketing of politics. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  99. Khairah, N. K. (2019, April 4). Government to pay Zunar RM1,000 over book ban. New Straits Times. Retrieved from
  100. Khoo, B. T. (2013). The 13th general election (GE 13) in Peninsular Malaysia: An analysis of issues, outcomes and implications - Report 4. Retrieved from Japan:
  101. Khor, Y. L. (2018, May 11). Commentary: Pakatan Harapan’s successful campaign strategy, informed by data, powered by people, Commentary. ChannelNewsAsia. Retrieved from
  102. Kitchens, J., Powell, L., & Williams, G. (2003). Information please? Information seeking, mass media and the undecided voter. Communication Research Reports, 20(1), 73–80.Google Scholar
  103. Klotz, R. J. (1998). Virtual criticism: Negative advertising on the internet in the 1996 senate races. Political Communication, 15(3), 347–365.Google Scholar
  104. Klotz, R. J. (2004). The politics of internet communication. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.Google Scholar
  105. Lai, I. (2013, April 11). GE13: ‘Wen Wen’ ready to greet voters The Star Online. Retrieved from
  106. Lee, P. (2013, June 4). Bangladesh denies claims its workers were phantom voters. The Star Online. Retrieved from
  107. Letchumanan, A. (2013, April 28). GE13: Parties singing and dancing to the tunes of Indians. The Star Online. Retrieved from
  108. Lilleker, D. G., & Jackson, N. A. (2011). Political campaigning, elections and the internet: Comparing the US, UK, France and Germany. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  109. Lilleker, D. G., & Negrine, R. (2002). Professionalisation: Of what? Since when? By whom? The Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 7(4), 98–103.Google Scholar
  110. Lilleker, D. G., & Scullion, R. (2009). Political advertising. In H. Powell, J. Hardy, S. Hawkins, & I. MacCrury (Eds.), The handbook of advertising (pp. 187–197). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  111. Lim, I. (2013a, March 29). Pakatan pushes Net presence, hopes for spread to villages. The Malaysian Insider. Retrieved from
  112. Lim, J. (2013b, May 11). The harrowing experience of being an EC officer for GE13. The Malaysian Insider. Retrieved from
  113. Lim, M. L. (2018, July 9). How digital marketing turned the GE14 tide. The Star/R.AGE. Retrieved from
  114. Lim, T. G. (2018, April 29). How the internet can help Harapan produce an upset win in GE14. Malaysiakini. Retrieved from
  115. Lin, R. (2015, May 17). Go crazy with Gila-Gila art at Galeri Petronas. The Star Online. Retrieved from
  116. Lisa J. A. (2013, September 15). DAP man concurs Pemantau’s findings of no foreign voters, blackouts. Free Malaysia Today. Retrieved from
  117. Loh, A. (2018, May 8). Langkawi mega-concert clashes with Dr M’s final GE14 ceramah. The Star Online. Retrieved from
  118. Loh, F. (2013, April 19). Mixing buffet dinners, lucky draws, international concert with GE13. Aliran.Google Scholar
  119. Loh, J. (2018a, May 4). Dr Mahathir sets bold target to reach 10 million voters with his Facebook Live campaign speech on eve of polling day. Business Insider Malaysia. Retrieved from
  120. Loh, J. (2018b, April 30). Mahathir is appealing to voters’ emotions with a new video – he even sobs, saying ‘I don’t have much time left’. Business Insider Malaysia. Retrieved from
  121. Lusoli, W., & Ward, S. (2004). Country report for the internet and election project, 2004 European parliament election – UK component. Retrieved from
  122. Maarek, P. J. (1995). Political marketing and communication. London: John Libbey.Google Scholar
  123. Maarek, P. J. (1997). New trends in French political communication: The 1995 presidential elections. Media, Culture and Society, 19(3), 357–368.Google Scholar
  124. Malay Mail Online. (2017, February 7). Fahmi Reza finalist for freedom of expression award. Malay Mail Online. Retrieved from
  125. Malay Mail Online. (2018, March 15). Dr Mahathir debuts on Instagram, gets 18k followers within first four hours. Malay Mail Online. Retrieved from
  126. Malaysiakini. (2018a, May 4). Dr M and sidekicks reunite, Malacca crowd goes gaga. Malaysiakini. Retrieved from
  127. Malaysiakini. (2018b, May 7). Najib returns to KL in ‘Hebatkan Negaraku’ AirAsia jet. Malaysiakini. Retrieved from
  128. Malaysiakini. (2018c, April 29). Not much time left but I must make amends, Dr M says in teary video. Malaysiakini. Retrieved from
  129. Malaysian Digital Association. (2013). MDA and comScore announce top 30 Malaysian web and video properties. Retrieved from Petaling Jaya:
  130. Mariswamy, K. (2013, April 23). GE13: Muhyiddin plugs BN record at school launching. Retrieved from
  131. Media Planning Guide Malaysia. (2013). Kuala Lumpur: Perception Media.Google Scholar
  132. Mohammad Arif, N. (2018, April 12). 1MDB: Tun M pengaruhi rakyat guna bahasa mudah. Malaysian Gazeete. Retrieved from
  133. Mohd Izzuddin, R. (2018). Empowerment through the graphic arts. New Naratif. Retrieved from
  134. Mohd Safar, H. (1996). Akhbar dan kuasa: Perkembangan system akhbar di Malaysia sejak 1906 [Newspapers and power: The development of the newspaper system in Malaysia since 1806] Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Universiti Malaya.Google Scholar
  135. Mohsin, A. (2018, May 8). Run-Up to GE14: The magnetic pull of Tun Mahathir. The Edge Malaysia. Retrieved from
  136. Monash University Malaysia. (2018). Preparing for a WhatsApp election. Retrieved from
  137. Moten, A. R. (2000). The 1999 general election in Malaysia: Towards a stable democracy? Akademika: Journal of the Social Sciences and Humanities, 57, 67–86.Google Scholar
  138. MSN News Malaysia. (2013, February 13). Malaysians plan ‘Jom Balik Undi’ campaign. MSN News Malaysia. Retrieved from
  139. Muliyadi, M. (2004). The history of Malay editorial cartoons (1930s–1993). Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Utusan Publication & Distributor.Google Scholar
  140. Mydans, S. (2008, November 5). Malaysian blogger fights a system he perfected The New York Times. Retrieved from
  141. Najwa, A., & Amalina, A. (2018a, May 8). Old politics and New media: Social media and Malaysia’s 2018 elections. The Diplomat. Retrieved from
  142. Najwa, A., & Amalina, A. (2018b, May 16). What effect did social media have on the Malaysian election result? . TodayOnline. Retrieved from
  143. Negrine, R. (2008). The transformation of political communication: Continuities and changes in media and politics. Houndsmill, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  144. New, J.-L. (2017, September 25). Mahathir’s Parti Pribumi Bersatu Malaysia Campaigns n Rural Areas to Win the Hearts Of Malay Voters. Retrieved from
  145. New Straits Times. (2003, December 12). Survey: More people prefer to join MCA. New Straits Times, p. 4.Google Scholar
  146. Newman, B. I. (1994). The marketing of the president. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.Google Scholar
  147. Newman, B. I. (Ed.). (1999). The handbook of political marketing. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.Google Scholar
  148. Newman, N. (2018). Digital News Report: Overview and Key Findings of the 2018 Report. Retrieved from
  149. Ngui, A. (2013, December 15). DAP screens Gangnam-inspired ‘Ubah Rocket Style’ (Video). The Sun Daily. Retrieved from
  150. Norris, P. (2000). A virtuous circle: Political communications in postindustrial societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  151. Norris, P. (2001). Digital divide: Civic engagement, information poverty and the internet worldwide. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  152. Norris, P. (2002). Democratic phoenix: Reinventing political activism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  153. Norris, P. (2004). The evolution of election campaigns: Eroding political engagement? Paper presented at the political Comunications in the 21st century, New Zealand.
  154. Norris, P., Curtice, J., Sanders, M., Scammell, M., & Semetko, H. A. (1999). On message: Communicating the campaign. London: Sage Publications Ltd.Google Scholar
  155. Oh, I. Y. (2013, April 17). GE13:DAP launches ‘Ubah’ mascot in Seri Kembangan The Star Online. Retrieved from
  156. Ong, M. (1980). The democratic action party and the 1978 general election. In H. Crouch, K. H. Lee, & M. Ong (Eds.), Malaysian politics and the 1978 election (pp. 137–175). Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  157. Owen, L. H. (2018). After years of growth, the use of social media for news is falling across the world. Retrieved from
  158. Pakatan Rakyat (PR) GE13 PRU13. (2013, April 15). Latest Pakatan Rakyat (PR) GE13 PRU13 complete ceramahs schedule. Retrieved from
  159. PoliTweet.Org. (2012). Census of Facebook users in Malaysia, Dec 2012. Retrieved from
  160. Praba, G. (2018, May 1). Social media struggles for the opposition as BN surges. New Mandala.Google Scholar
  161. Pragalath, K. (2013, April 25). BN’s song-dance efforts fail miserably. Free Malaysia Today. Retrieved from
  162. Promchertchoo, P. (2018, May 8). Malaysian PM Najib promises special holidays, tax exemptions if BN wins election. ChannelNewsAsia. Retrieved from
  163. Quan-Haase, A., Wellman, B., Witte, J., & Hampton K. (2002). Capitalising on the net: Social context, civic engagement and sense of community. In B. Wellman & C. Haythornwaite (Eds.), The internet in everyday life (pp. 291–324). Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  164. Rachagan, S. S. (1987). The apportionment of seats in the house of representatives. In H. A. Zakaria (Ed.), Government and politics of Malaysia (pp. 56–70). Singapore: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  165. Rahimy, R. (2018, April 9). Khairy in catchy election video for youth. The Star Online. Retrieved from
  166. Rizalman, H. M. F., Mohd Yusof (2018, April 8). Pakatan to use PKR logo in GE14. New Straits Times. Retrieved from
  167. Rose, I. (2004, March 16). Larger turnout of voters expected. New Straits Times, p. 1.Google Scholar
  168. Sadow, J., & James, K. (1999). Virtual billboards? Candidate websites and campaigning in 1998? Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Atlanta, GA.Google Scholar
  169. Schmitt-Beck, R., & Farrell, D. M. (2002). Studying political campaigns and their effects. In D. M. Farrell & R. Schmitt-Beck (Eds.), Do political campaigns matter? Campaign effects in elections and referenda (pp. 1–21). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  170. Schudson, M. (1999). The good citizen: A history of American civic life. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  171. Selnow, G. W. (1998). Electronic whistle stops: The impact of the internet on American politics. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.Google Scholar
  172. Ser, K. K. K., & Lee, W. L. (2013). May 13 riots, race card played up in Johor. Malaysiakini. Retrieved from
  173. Seymour-Ure, C. (1996). The British press and broadcasting since 1945. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  174. Seymour-Ure, C. (1998). Are the broadsheets becoming unhinged? The Political Quarterly, 69(B), 43–54.Google Scholar
  175. Shah, D. V., Cho, J., Eveland, W. P., & Kwak, N. (2005). Information and expression in a digital age: Modelling internet effects on civic participation. Communication Research, 35(5), 531–565.Google Scholar
  176. Shamsul, A. (2004, February 9). The pulpit as a political tool. New Straits Times, p. 14.Google Scholar
  177. Shanmugam, M. (2018, April 21). The difference WhatsApp, FB has brought to GE14. The Star Online. Retrieved from
  178. Spykerman, N. (2010). PKR takes fight to Umno strongholds. The Malaysian Insider. Retrieved from
  179. Sumisha, N. (2018, May 8). Political rallies take Centre stage in battle for urban Malaysia. Channel News Asia. Retrieved from
  180. Swanson, D. L., & Mancini, P. (Eds.). (1996). Politics, media and modern democracy: An international study of innovations in electoral campaigning and their consequences. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.Google Scholar
  181. Tahir, A. (2018, May 28). #showbiz: Celebs following in Dr M’s footsteps in taking vitamins. New Straits Times Online. Retrieved from
  182. Tam, S. (2013, May 1). How is social media affecting the 13th Malaysian general election? Yahoo News Philippines. Retrieved from
  183. Tamam, E., & Govindasamy, M. (2009). Political communication practices and research in Malaysia. In L. Willnat & A. Aw (Eds.), Political communication in Asia (pp. 135–153). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  184. Tan, C. C. (2018, April 2). RUN-UP TO GE14: How big data is changing Malaysia’s election landscape. The Edge Financial Daily. Retrieved from
  185. Tan, T. (2018, April 1). It’s shaping up to be a WhatsApp election. The Star Online. Retrieved from
  186. Tapsell, R. (2013). Negotiating media ‘balance’ in Malaysia’s 2013 general election. Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs, 32(2), 39–60.Google Scholar
  187. Tay, S. (2013, April 6). BN’s nonsense continues …. Free Malaysia Today. Retrieved from
  188. Tedesco, J., Miller, J., & Spiker, J. (1999). Presidential campaigning on the information superhighway: An exploration of content and form. In L. Kaid & D. Bystrom (Eds.), The electronic election: Perspectives on the 1996 campaign communication (pp. 51–63). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.Google Scholar
  189. Teo, C. W. (2013, April 20). Party mascots add cuteness factor. AsiaOne News. Retrieved from
  190. Teoh, B. (2014, May 28). Social media driving Teluk Intan polls. Retrieved from
  191. Thasha, J. (2018, May 4). Pakatan targets 10 million voters with Dr M ‘live’ in Langkawi on may 8. Malay Mail Online. Retrieved from
  192. The Malaysian Bar. (2007). Walk for justice: When lawyers walk, something must be very wrong. Retrieved from
  193. The Malaysian Insider. (2013a, May 1). BN banks on ‘brand Najib’ to sway fence-sitters. The Malaysian Insider. Retrieved from
  194. The Malaysian Insider. (2013b, August 25). Kit Siang excoriates ‘Tanda Putera’ maker over fictional flagpole scene. The Malaysian Insider. Retrieved from
  195. The Malaysian Insight. (2018, March 22). Malaysia’s national polls to be a WhatsApp election. Today Online. Retrieved from
  196. The New Straits Times Online. (2018, May 18). PM hits 1 million followers on Instagram. The New Straits Times Online. Retrieved from
  197. The Star Online. (2008, May 2). Mahathir starts his own blog. The Star Online. Retrieved from
  198. The Star Online. (2013a, April 12). GE13: Celebrities from both sides of the divide show their support. The Star Online. Retrieved from
  199. The Star Online. (2013b, April 28). GE13: Celebrities to campaign for BN nationwide. The Star Online. Retrieved from
  200. The Star Online. (2013c, May 8). GE13: DAP condemns social network users for spreading rumours. The Star Online. Retrieved from
  201. The Star Online. (2013d, April 13). GE13: MCA bringing in more ‘stability’. Retrieved from
  202. The Star Online. (2013e, March 26). GE13: Move over hornbill, MCA’s panda is the people’s choice. The Star Online. Retrieved from
  203. The Star Online. (2013f, April 12). GE13: Online campaigns get nasty. The Star Online. Retrieved from
  204. The Star Online. (2013g, April 11). GE13: Selangor MCA uses political videos to attract youths. The Star Online. Retrieved from
  205. The Star Online. (2013h, April 6). GE13: Wan Aishah to contest Jempol seat. The Star Online. Retrieved from
  206. The Star Online. (2017, August 28). ‘Citizen Liow’ plays dual role in National Day video. The Star Online. Retrieved from
  207. The Star Online. (2018a, April 28). NegaraKru videos spread love and positive vibes. The Star Online. Retrieved from
  208. The Star Online. (2018b, April 5). PKR launches two social media apps. The Star Online. Retrieved from
  209. The Star Online. (2018c, April 26). Wakanda forever! Roars into M’sian politics. The Star Online. Retrieved from
  210. The Star Online. (2019). Fahmi Reza fails to strike out conviction for publishing Najib caricature. The Star Online. Retrieved from
  211. The Straits Times. (2007, July 30). Malaysian leaders step up calls for controls on bloggers. The Straits Times. Retrieved from
  212. The Straits Times. (2018, February 23). Malaysia PM Najib mocked for saying he eats pricey quinoa now, not rice. The Straits TImes. Retrieved from
  213. Theophilus, C. (2008, March 9). Malaysia poll battle goes online. Al Jazeera English. Retrieved from
  214. Today Online. (2014, January 15). Najib’s ‘kangkung’ statement draws flak from netizens Today Online. Retrieved from
  215. Toh, T. (2018, September 23). Cartoonist Zunar on his sedition charges & fight for political reform. The Star Online. Retrieved from
  216. Tolbert, C. J., & McNeal, R. S. (2003). Unravelling the effects of the internet on political participation. Political Research Quarterly, 56(2), 175–185.Google Scholar
  217. Trammell, K. D. (2006). Blog offensive: An exploratory analysis of attacks published on campaign blog posts from a political public relations perspective. Public Relations Review, 32(4), 402–406.Google Scholar
  218. Trent, J. S., & Friedenberg, R. V. (1991). Political campaign communication: Principles and practices (2nd ed.). New York: Praeger Publishers.Google Scholar
  219. Umapagan, A. (2018, May 7). What is wrong with Malaysia? The New York TImes. Retrieved from
  220. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. (2012). Digital media is now the mainstream media. Retrieved from
  221. Vasil, R. K. (1980). Ethnic politics in Malaysia. New Delhi, India: Radiant Publishers.Google Scholar
  222. Vinod, G. (2013, April 28). Wake up and stand up for democracy. Free Malaysia Today. Retrieved from
  223. Ward, S. J., & Gibson, R. K. (2000). The politics of the future? UK parties and the internet. In S. Coleman (Ed.), Elections in the age of the internet: Lessons from the United States (pp. 29–36). London: Hansard Society.Google Scholar
  224. Ward, S. J., Gibson, R. K., & Lusoli, W. (2005). Old politics, new media: Parliament, the public and the internet. Paper presented at the 55th annual conference of the political studies association, University of Leeds University of Leeds.Google Scholar
  225. Weber, L. M., Loumakis, A., & Bergman, J. (2003). Who participates and why? An analysis of citizens on the internet and the mass public. Social Science Computer Review, 21(1), 26–42.Google Scholar
  226. Wee, H. T. (2013). Online petition against RAPP Malaysia for producing fear-mongering and patronising ads for BN. Retrieved from
  227. Wee, H. T. (2018). Barisan Hasutan versus Pakatan Hasutan. Retrieved from
  228. Williams, A. P., Trammell, K. D., Postelnicu, M., Landreville, K. D., & Martin, J. D. (2005). Blogging and hyperlinking: Use of the web to enhance viability during the 2004 US campaign. Journalism Studies, 6(2), 177–186.Google Scholar
  229. Wring, D. (1996). Political marketing and party development in Britain: A ‘secret’ history. European Journal of Marketing, 30(10/11), 92–103.Google Scholar
  230. Wring, D. (1999). The marketing colonisation of political campaigning. In B. I. Newman (Ed.), The handbook of political marketing (pp. 41–53). London: Sage Publications Ltd.Google Scholar
  231. Zurairi, A. R. (2013a, May 4). On last day of GE13 campaign, fake propaganda sprouts. The Malaysian Insider. Retrieved from
  232. Zurairi, A. R. (2013b, April 10). Spending soars as BN sets out to conquer ad space. The Malaysian Insider. Retrieved from

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pauline Pooi Yin Leong
    • 1
  1. 1.Sunway UniversityPetaling JayaMalaysia

Personalised recommendations