A Framework and Indicators of Resilience

  • Kenshi BabaEmail author
  • Yu Nagata
  • Shun Kawakubo
  • Mitsuru Tanaka


As an introduction of this book, we first examine the definitions and scopes of resilience and concepts of a resilient city using an extensive literature review. We then employ the concept and framework of assessing a resilient city and develop its indicators. Consequently, we define a resilient city as being capable of responding to multiple environmental risks, and we assume that a combination of precautionary, adaptive, and transformative measures is required according to the degree of external forces (risks or stresses). We introduce the policy model based on the assumption that the state of implementation and preparation of resilience measures is governed by three major elements: risks of external forces, vulnerabilities, and situations to be avoided. The policy model also includes three types of indicators—urban, citizen, and administrative indicators—which measure the state of each element of the policy model.


Climate change Natural disaster External force Vulnerability 


  1. Adger W (2000) Social and ecological resilience: are they related? Prog Hum Geogr 24:347–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen KM (2006) Community-based preparedness and climate adaptation: local capacity building in the Philippines. Disasters 30(1):81–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bergamini N, Blasiak R, Eyzaguirre P, Ichikawa K, Mijatovic D, Nakao F, Subramanian SM (2013) Indicators of resilience in Socio-ecological Productiotan Landscapes (SEPLs), UNU-IAS policy report. UNU-IAS. Retrieved August 5, 2015, from
  4. Brown A, Dayal A, Rumbaitis Del Rio C (2012) From practice to theory: emerging lessons from Asia for building urban climate change resilience. Environ Urban 24:531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cutter SL, Burton CG, Emrich CT (2010) Disaster resilience indicators for benchmarking baseline conditions. J Homeland Security Emer Manag 7(1):51. Scholar
  6. Duraiappah AK, Nakamura K, Takeuchi T, Watanabe M, Nishi M (eds) (2012) Satoyama-satoumi ecosystems and human Well-being: socio-ecological production landscapes of Japan. United Nations University Press, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  7. Fujii S, Kume K, Matsunaga A, Nakano T (2012) Perspective of research on economic resilience. RIETI policy discussion paper series, 12-P-008 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  8. Godschalk D (2003) Urban hazard mitigation: creating resilient cities. Nat Haz Rev 4:136–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gu H, Subramanian SM (2012) Socio-ecological production landscapes: relevance to the green economy agenda. United Nations University Institute of Advanced Studies Policy ReportGoogle Scholar
  10. Holling CS (1973) Resilience and stability of ecological system. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 4:1–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. ICLEI-Local Government for Sustainability (2012) Preparing for tomorrow strategy 2012–2018, from
  12. Ikeda S, Morioka T (1993) A concept and its methodology of risk analysis. Jpn J Risk Res 5(1):1–7. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  13. Ishihara Y, Nakamaru S (2007) Resilience – concepts, history and perspectives of studies. Ann Hiroshima Bunkyo Women’s University, 42:53–81 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  14. Jha AK, Miner TW, Stanton-Geddes Z (eds) (2013) Building urban resilience: principles, tools, and practice. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  15. Manyena SB (2006) The concept of resilience revisited. Disasters 30(4):433–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Mens, M. J. P., Klijn, F. de Bruijn, & K. M. van Beek, E. (2011). The meaning of system robustness for flood risk management. Environ Sci Pol, 14, 1121–1131Google Scholar
  17. Moench M, Tyler S, Lage J (eds) (2011) Catalysing urban climate resilience – applying resilience concepts to planning practice in the ACCCRN program. Institute for Social and Environmental Transition, International, Boulder, p 306Google Scholar
  18. Moench M, Tyler S (2012) A framework for urban climate resilience. Clim Dev 4(4):311–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mori A (2010) Points to remember in risk management in ecology – perspective of variation and non- equilibrium. Jpn J Ecol 60:337–348. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  20. National Resilience Promotion Office, Cabinet Secretariat (2014) Documents and minutes of national resilience (disaster reduction and mitigation) Advisory meeting 1st–15th. Retrieved August 1, 2014, from
  21. Newman P, Beatley T, Boyer H (2009) Resilient cities responding to peak oil and climate change. Island Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  22. Norris FH, Stevens SP, Pfefferbaum B, Wyche KF, Pfefferbaum RL (2008) Community resilience as a metaphor, theory, set of capacities, and strategy for disaster readiness. Am J Community Psychol 41:127–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Otto-Zimmermann K (ed) (2011) Resilient cities: cities and adaptation to climate change: proceedings of the global forum 2010. Springer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  24. Otto-Zimmermann K (ed) (2012) Resilient cities 2: cities and adaptation to climate change: proceedings of the global forum 2011. Springer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  25. Resilience Alliance (2010) Assessing resilience in social-ecological systems workbook for practitioners revised version 2.0. Retrieved August 5, 2015 from
  26. Resilient. (2013) Resilience. Retrieved August 29, 2013, from
  27. Resilient Alliance (2002) Key concepts – Resilience. Retrieved August 29, 2013, from
  28. Sharma D, Singh, R., & Singh, R. (2013). Urban climate resilience: a review of the methodologies adopted under the ACCCRN initiative in Indian cities. Asian Cities Climate Resilience Working Paper Series 5.. Retrieved October 14, 2015, from Scholar
  29. Shiozaki Y, Kato T (2012) A definition of resilience and vulnerability in natural disaster and relevant areas. SEISAN-KENKYU 64(2):217–220Google Scholar
  30. The Rockefeller Foundation and ARUP International Development (2014) City resilience framework.. Ove Arup & Partners International Limited. Retrieved August 5, 2015, from Scholar
  31. Tobin GA (1999) Sustainability and community resilience: The holy grail of hazards planning? Environ Haz 1:13–25Google Scholar
  32. Uchiyama I (2006) Health hazard, Health risk, environmental risk. In: Society for Risk Analysis Japan (ed) Risk dictionary (enlarged and revised edition). Hankyu Communications, Osaka, pp 42–46. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  33. UNISDR. (2012). How to make cities more resilient. A handbook for local governments leaders.. UNISDR. Retrieved August 29, 2013, from Scholar
  34. UNSIDR. (2005). Hyogo Framework for 2005–2015: Building resilience of nations and communities to disaster risk reduction.. Retrieved August 29, 2013, from Scholar
  35. van Aalst MK, Cannon T, Burton I (2008) Community level adaptation to climate change: The potential role of participatory community risk assessment. Glob Environ Chang 18:165–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kenshi Baba
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yu Nagata
    • 2
  • Shun Kawakubo
    • 3
  • Mitsuru Tanaka
    • 3
  1. 1.Tokyo City UniversityKanagawaJapan
  2. 2.Kumamoto City OfficeKumamotoJapan
  3. 3.Hosei UniversityTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations