Embodied Learning in a Digital World: A Systematic Review of Empirical Research in K-12 Education
- 926 Downloads
There is a widespread assumption that technology-enhanced embodied learning environments, which are grounded on the notion of embodied cognition, can promote learning. The current study reviews the empirical basis of this assumption by examining literature published from 2008 to 2017 which employed technology-enhanced embodied learning environments in K-12 education. Overall, 41 journal articles were included in the review study; these were indexed in four databases (Education Research Complete [via EBSCO], ERIC, JSTOR, and Scopus) as well as in Google Scholar, or were identified via the ancestry method. As part of our analysis, we focused on the type of technology-enhanced embodied environments utilized for educational purposes, the research methods adopted for their evaluation, and the educational contexts in which they were implemented. At the core of this review study, we investigated students’ learning outcomes across the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains, while we examined the learning effectiveness of technology-enhanced embodied environments, as compared to other interfaces and forms of instruction. In general, the review revealed positive outcomes about the use of technology-enhanced embodied learning environments in K-12. Most of the reviewed studies were contextualized in STEM education, adopted gesture-based technologies, and evaluated students’ learning using retrospective measures grounded on pre–post-testing. Cognitive outcomes were dominant in the reviewed studies, while the evaluation of affective and psychomotor outcomes received less attention. Most of the reviewed comparative studies reported that students in the embodied learning condition had increased learning gains, when compared to their counterparts in the control or comparison groups. However, these findings should be treated with caution due to a set of methodological concerns that this review identified. We conclude this chapter with a synthesis of our findings in the form of emerged implications and we provide a set of guidelines for future research and practice in the field of technology-enhanced embodied learning environments.
KeywordsEmbodied cognition Technology-enhanced learning Embodied learning environments Learning outcomes K-12 education
This work is part of the project that has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement No. 739578 (RISE-Call:H2020-WIDESPREAD-01-2016-2017-TeamingPhase2) and the government of the Republic of Cyprus through the Directorate General for European Programmes, Coordination and Development.
*Articles in the Review Corpus
- Abrahamson, D., & Lindgren, R. (2014). Embodiment and embodied design. In The Cambridge Handbook of the Learning Sciences, Second Edition (pp. 358–376). https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139519526.022.
- *Abrahamson, D., Trninic, D., Gutiérrez, J. F., Huth, J., & Lee, R. G. (2011). Hooks and shifts: A dialectical study of mediated discovery. Technology, Knowledge and Learning, 16(1), 55–85. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10758-011-9177-y.
- *Altanis, G., Boloudakis, M., Retalis, S., & Nikou, N. (2013). Children with motor impairments play a Kinect learning game: First findings from a pilot case in an authentic classroom environment. Interaction Design and Architecture(s) Journal - IxD&A, 19(19), 91–104.Google Scholar
- *Birchfield, D., Thornburg, H., Megowan-Romanowicz, M. C., Hatton, S., Mechtley, B., Dolgov, I., & Burleson, W. (2008). Embodiment, multimodality, and composition: Convergent themes across HCI and education for mixed-reality learning environments. Advances in Human-Computer Interaction, 2008, 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1155/2008/874563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bloom, B. (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives – The Cognitive Domain. New York: Donald McKay.Google Scholar
- Dahn, M., Enyedy, N., & Danish, J. (2018). How teachers use instructional improvisation to organize science discourse and learning in a mixed reality environment (pp. 72–79). London, UK: International Society of the Learning Sciences (ISLS).Google Scholar
- *Di Tore, S., Aiello, P., Palumbo, C., Vastola, R., Raiola, G., D’Elia, F., … Sibilio, M. (2012). Sensory motor interaction in virtual environment to promote teaching-learning process. Problems of Education in the 21st Century, 42, 29–37.Google Scholar
- Gagné, R. M. (1977). The conditions of learning. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.Google Scholar
- *Homer, B. D., Kinzer, C. K., Plass, J. L., Letourneau, S. M., Hoffman, D., Bromley, M., … Kornak, Y. (2014). Moved to learn: The effects of interactivity in a Kinect-based literacy game for beginning readers. Computers and Education, 74, 37–49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2014.01.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- *Hwang, W. Y., Shih, T. K., Yeh, S. C., Chou, K. C., Ma, Z. H., & Sommool, W. (2014). Recognition-based physical response to facilitate EFL learning. Educational Technology and Society, 17(4), 432–445.Google Scholar
- *Jagodziński, P., & Wolski, R. (2014). The examination of the impact on students’ use of gestures while working in a virtual chemical laboratory for their cognitive abilities. Problems of Education in the 21st Century, 61, 46–57.Google Scholar
- Johnson, L., Adams, S., & Cummins, M. (2012). The 2012 horizon report. Austin, Texas: The New Media Consortium.Google Scholar
- Johnson-Glenberg, M. C., & Megowan-Romanowicz, C. (2017). Embodied science and mixed reality: How gesture and motion capture affect physics education. Cognitive research: principles and implications, 2(1), 24.Google Scholar
- *Kourakli, M., Altanis, I., Retalis, S., Boloudakis, M., Zbainos, D., & Antonopoulou, K. (2017). Towards the improvement of the cognitive, motoric and academic skills of students with special educational needs using Kinect learning games. International Journal of Child-Computer Interaction, 11, 28–39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcci.2016.10.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Krathwohl, D. R., Anderson, L. W., Airasian, P. W., Cruikshank, K. A., Mayer, R. E., Pintrich, P. R., … Wittrock, M. C. (2002). A Taxonomy For Learning, Teaching, And Assessing: A Revision Of Bloom’s Taxonomy Of Educational Objectives. New York Longman. New York, NY: Addison Wesley Longman. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15430421tip4104_2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- *Kuo, F. R., Hsu, C. C., Fang, W. C., & Chen, N. S. (2014). The effects of embodiment-based TPR approach on student English vocabulary learning achievement, retention and acceptance. Journal of King Saud University - Computer and Information Sciences, 26(1), 63–70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jksuci.2013.10.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- *Li, K., Lou, S., Tsai, H., & Shih, R. (2012). The effects of applying game-based learning to webcam motion sensor games for autistic student’s sensory integration. Tojet, 11(4), 451–459. Retrieved from http://www.tojet.net/articles/v11i4/11446.pdf.
- Melcer, E. F., & Isbister, K. (2016, May). Bridging the physical divide: A design framework for embodied learning games and simulations. In Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 2225-2233). ACM.Google Scholar
- NRC (2011). Learning science through computer games and simulations. (H. M., Honey M. A., Ed.), Studies in Science Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.Google Scholar
- *Smith, C., King, B., & Gonzalez, D. (2016). Using multimodal learning analytics to identify patterns of interactions in a body-based mathematics activity. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 27(4), 355–379.Google Scholar
- *Tolentino, L., Birchfield, D., Megowan-Romanowicz, C., Johnson-Glenberg, M. C., Kelliher, A., & Martinez, C. (2009). Teaching and learning in the mixed-reality science classroom. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 18(6), 501–517. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10956-009-9166-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Walkington, C., Chelule, G., Woods, D., & Nathan, M. J. (2018). Collaborative gesture as a case of distributed mathematical cognition gesture as simulation action research questions. London, UK: International Society of the Learning Sciences (ISLS) (pp. 552–559).Google Scholar
- Wouters, P., Van der Spek, E. D., & Van Oostendorp, H. (2009). Current practices in serious game research: A review from a learning outcomes perspective. In Games-based learning advancements for multi-sensory human computer interfaces: techniques and effective practices (pp. 232–250). IGI Global.Google Scholar
- *Yang, J. C., Chen, C. H., & Jeng, M. C. (2010). Integrating video-capture virtual reality technology into a physically interactive learning environment for English learning. Computers & Education, 55(3), 1346–1356.Google Scholar