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Magnetic Cellulose Green Nanocomposite Adsorbents for the Removal of Heavy Metal Ions in Water/Wastewater

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Green Biopolymers and their Nanocomposites

Part of the book series: Materials Horizons: From Nature to Nanomaterials ((MHFNN))

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Abstract

In the recent days, control of water contamination and treatment of wastewater is a challenging task throughout the globe because of their impact on human health. The most commonly employed method for the removal of organic pollutants especially toxic heavy metal ions from water/wastewater is adsorption using an adsorbent. There are various types of adsorbents available ranging from synthetic polymers like chelating resins, ion-exchange resins, polystyrene, and sulfonate resins. However, high cost and regeneration difficulties are associated with the use of these synthetic polymer adsorbents. In view of the above difficulties, researchers are focusing on the development of low-cost adsorbents from naturally available green biopolymers like polysaccharides. Cellulose is one among the most frequently used green polysaccharide to prepare various types of functional adsorbent materials at low cost. Even though, cellulose alone could not give a satisfactory performance on the adsorption or chelation of heavy metal ions from water/wastewater solution. To improve the adsorption capacity and achieve easy separation of cellulose-based green adsorbents, the magnetization of the adsorbent is a significant and efficient route. Magnetic adsorbent materials provide excellent water purification without any contaminants and also have the ability to treat large quantities of water/wastewater within a short span of time. Often, iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3/Fe3O4) had been utilized for environmental remediation because of their superior advantages such as large surface area, biocompatibility, less energy requirement, low toxicity, and better separation ability. This chapter will provide a broader perspective of magnetic cellulose green nanocomposites and their use as an adsorbent for the removal of toxic heavy metal ions from water/wastewater.

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Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank Department of Science & Technology, Government of India, New Delhi for the financial assistance received under DST - SYST (Sanction order: SP/YO/267/2018).

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Seeni Meera, K., Arunbabu, D. (2019). Magnetic Cellulose Green Nanocomposite Adsorbents for the Removal of Heavy Metal Ions in Water/Wastewater. In: Gnanasekaran, D. (eds) Green Biopolymers and their Nanocomposites. Materials Horizons: From Nature to Nanomaterials. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-8063-1_18

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